To be distinguished from animals because all humans have an admitted access to immortal soul or reason.
Which science contributed the most to the
What were the
discoveries of the famous anthropologists, such as Mead and Malinowski?
They both researched adolescents and their development in their prospective environments. Their studies found that childrens' behavior and environment vary substantially and that these theories need to be tested cross culturally.
When did the most intense
growth of cross-cultural studies occur?
2nd half of the 20th Century
In which ways did we, in class, challenge
In Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt, Erickson states that children need this time to develop independence and mainly play alone out of the mother's presence. If they do not do this they develop a sense of shame and doubt in their abilities. This is tested because in a Peruvian community children spend most of their time in the presence of their mom and they develop normally. Then in Identity and role confusion, adolescents can either develop an strong sense of self or become confused about their identity. Opposed to this is Margaret Mead who found that the emotional upheaval of American girls are not universal and non existent in other societies.
What were the major tenets of the Whitings’
approach to studying child development in cross-cultural setting?
-History and cultural environment
Their conceptualization of child development draws from anthropology, psychoanalysis, learning theory, and human development.
What are the Theoretical Frameworks?
The biological-maturation framework
The constructivist framework
The cultural-context framework
What were the major
shortcomings of the above approach?
Environmental, historical, societal, and early- experience was generalized to all cultures
Didn't take individual personality into consideration or that things could differ between cultures.
The lack of attention to variables such as gender, age, intelligence
Child is directly surrounded first by:
The people that the child is directly involved with
Ex: Family, day care, peer group, church group
Relations between the microsystem and the other systems.
Facilitates adaption to new solutions
Facilitates adaption to new roles
Problematic in development if the parent's teachings are in conflict with the rest of the world.
Prevailing ideologies of the culture, customs, values and laws
It is very influential but not directly experienced by the child
May vary within culture, according to social class, race and ethnicity
Ex: What the culture believes the role of the woman should be
Interaction btwn caretaker psychology, physical and social settings in which the child lives and culture customs all affect the development of the child.
With this framework it is believed that culture influences the developing child.
Children's development does not necessarily progress through general stages.
Culture is actively created by individuals who actively participate in the activities of their communities.
The child interacts with culture and they affect each other. the child changes culture while culture changes the child.
Cognitive development does not occur in social vacuum
Have to be interactive with other people of the environment
Cultural tools are important for controlling and transferring
Psychological ideas (language, music)
Technical Tools (computer, cell phones)
Language is the most important psychological tool
In terms of infant and maternal mortality
rates, how does the USA compare with other nations?
In comparison to other nations, the US has lower mortality rates because it is a more developed country.
What is the UNICEF recommendation in terms
of breast or bottle feeding babies in terms of their chances for survival?
It is better to breast feed the child for two main reasons:
1) In developing countries formula is usually mixed with contaminated water which leads to disease and vulnerable infants.
2)Many poor mothers use less formula than is needed in order to make the formula last longer. As a result some infants receive inadequate nutrition from weak solutions of formula.
Which race has the highest mortality rate in the US?
African American: 13.9
Puerto Ricans: 8.2
Native Americans: 9.1
Primary Causes of infant death in the USA
Congenital Anomalies: Child is born with something wrong with them.
SIDS: Sudden Infant death syndrome
what is SIDS?
Sudden infant Death Syndrome is the diagnosis given for the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that remains unexplained after a complete investigation.
Under which conditions the risks for SIDS
Sleeping on soft surfaces or loose bedding
Prone (face down) or side sleeping
What were the details of the Nestle scandal?
Nestle went to other countries and sold their formula for babies for very cheap telling the mothers it was better for them. The mother would buy it just to try it, by the time they wanted to go back to regular breast milk it was already gone so they had to go buy formula. By this time Nestle had raised their prices for the formula and the mothers had no choice but to pay the inflated price. Many mothers were forced to to dilute the formula because of their lack of money so many of their children became sickly and died.
The practice of killing children for lack of resources.
A common practice in big metropolitan areas in which parents just lock the children out and don't let them back in.
What are the different types of caregiver-
1) Face to face( mother-infant eye contact)
2) Facing-outward position: this is important so the baby can understand the world.
It is said that it may affect motor development.
It is also said that since infants are physically restricted, they become psychologically restricted (subservient to authority)
Ex: Swaddling in Russia->acceptance of Stalin's oppression.
What are some of the beliefs of middle class
parents in the USA?
American have an unstoppable desire to speed up their offspring's rate of development. It is known as the "American Problem"
What is the "American Problem"?
A "super normal" baby is desired. People would do anything so they could have "brainy babies" so new games were being bought and all the methods that were being publicized were tried.
In terms of child
characteristics, which ones will be more/less important for parents in
In Western Societies the emergences of cognitive skills is expected sooner.
In non-Western Societies self-control, emotional maturity is expected sooner.
What are the most
important predictors of children’s secure attachment to their caregivers?
The child is more secure with his surroundings and is quickly looking for the mom when she leaves and is instantly calmed upon her return.
What is the cross-national distribution of
secure and insecure attachment (roughly).
Distress upon mother leaving, seeking her and quickly calmed upon her return.
Tend to stay close to mother, extreme distress when she leaves, not easily soothed, seeks contatct but at the same time resists reuniting.
Oblivious to mother's presence, no distress when left alone, no attempt to reunite.
What did research with orphaned children
It was found that within a year they were hindered intellectually.
Those that were adopted before the age of 2 made a full recovery, but those adopted btwn the ages of 2-6 were slightly retarded in their function.
Kids in Africa: do they demonstrate all
types of attachment?
No. They were securely attached to other people besides just the mother and there was an absence of avoidant attachment.
Post traumatic slave syndrome
The breadth and cope of slavery's assault on the Black spirit created an extreme ans long-lasting kind of stress that has passed from one generation to the next.
The focus on one culture to discover conceptions and classifications of a phenomenon from the point of view of the members of the culture.
Power Distance Index
Focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society.
High Power Distance
Inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society.
Ex: India- The caste system
Low Power Distance
The society de-emphasizes the differences between citizen's power and wealth.
Ex: Sweden- Treat everyone equal
What are the Hofstede "ecological" (cultural-level) dimensions
Uncertainty Power Index
Focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society
Ex: unstructured situations
High Uncertainty Avoidance Ranking
The county has a low a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations and controls.
Ex: Germany-have many laws, no tolerance
Low Uncertainty Avoidance Ranking
The country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of options.
Ex: Mexico or Spain bc they are very flexible.
Focuses on the degree the society reinforces the individual or collective achievements and interpersonal relationships.
High Individualism Ranking
Individuality and Individual rights are paramount within the society. Individuals in these societies may tend to form a large number of looser relationships.
Low Individualism Ranking
Societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties btwn the individuals. These families reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes care of everyone else in the extended group.
Focuses on the degree the society reinforces or does not reinforce, to the traditional masculine work role model achievements, control and power.
High Masculinity Ranking
The counrty experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male dominance.
Ex: Mexico, Middle East, Russia
Low Masculinity Ranking
The country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination btwn genders. In these societies, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society.
What is socialization?
The process by which an individual becomes a member of a particular culture and takes on its values, beliefs, and other behaviors in order to function in it.
What are the traditional socialization
practices of minority groups in the USA?
Conformity, obedience, not standing out
What are the social class differences in children's upbringing?
Working Class parents- Want to give the children the freedom to grow up naturally and form bonds with kin and friends.
Upper middle class parents- Believe in intense cultivation with parents running around taking their children to different activities to become more cultivated.
Baumrind's Parenting Style
Authoritarian: High demand, low responsiveness
Authoritative: High demand, high responsiveness
Permissive: Low demand, Low responsiveness
Univolved: Abused, neglected, maltreated.
Parents are very controlling, punitive, rigid and cold. They do not tolerate disobedience or expression of disagreement.
Parents provide lax and inconsistent feedback. They are detached, emotionally and see their role as no more than feeding, clothing and providing shelter.
Parents are clear and set clear and consistent limits. Although they tend to be strict they ten top be loving and supportive. They encourage their children to be independent.
a process by which childrenincorporate new experiences into their existingschemes
the process by which children modify their existing schemas in order to incorporateor adapt to new experiences
The development of children's cognitivestructures is progressing through a universalsequence from sensorimotor, to concrete, toformal logical thought.
Vygotsky’s key ideas
Emphasized social and historical-cultural influences oncognitive development.
Smallest meaningful unit of study = a child in socialcontext.
Focus on process of intellectual change rather thanstatic ability – potential for change (through socialinteraction) is more important than child’s currentlevel of intellectual functioning.
defines thosefunctions that have not yet matured but are in theprocess of maturation”
Cognitive development is a result ofmaturational processes and a child’s ownefforts to make sense of the world
These efforts are coordinated with theopportunities for learning that are provided bythe social and cultural setting