Irreversible Investments (key to showing you are serious)
Refreezing (reinforcing change)
What issues do you consider for the Unfreezing stage?
Is there awareness by those who need to implement the change that there is a problem? If not, how will you build consensus about the need to change?
What issues do you consider for the Moving/Changing stage?
Who is likely to be supportive of the change?
Who is likely to oppose the change?
Who would be important advocates for this change effort?
What are the obstacles to implementing the change?
How can you show that you're serious about implementing this change?
What issues do you consider for the Refreezing stage?
What incentives need to be adjusted?
What performance metrics can be created?
What short term successes or other confidence building measures can you leverage?
What ways can you communicate a continuing commitment to the change effort?
Managing change participatively (6 steps)
1. Data collection
2. Feedback to the boss
3. Consensus about problems
4. Consensus about solutions
6. Institutionalizing change
Change effort that failed:
a) If people try to implement change but give up, it is a __________ problem.
b) If they never try, it is a ___________ problem.
a) refreezing problem
b) unfreezing problem
What are the 5 bases of Power?
Reward (ability ot offer a 'carrot")
Coercive (deny or inflict punishment)
Expert (can be anywhere in the org)
Referent (someone we seek approval from)
Who gets Power?
Institutionalization (when the market shifts, this prevents shift in power)
Do Favors (propose cooperative solutions)
Get Points on the Scoreboard (get some tangible successes, establish expertise)
Be Liked (make people want ot be cooperative with you, socially similar, develop rapport, etc)
Change the Rules (develop new architecture or rules, make it easy to comply)
Leverage Subordinates (leverage the power and connections of people working for you)
Vroom-Yetton model - Decision making options
AI – autocratic; make the decision yourself
AII – autocratic; Ask for information, then make decision yourself
CI – consultative; Consult with subordinates individually
CII – consultative; Consult with subordinates as a groupGII – group; Let the subordinates decide as a group
Choosing a decision making style
If support from subordinates is important, consult with them (CI, CII, GII).
If the problem is unstructured, meet in a group (CII, GII).
If the best decision is likely to create conflict, meet in a group, but you decide (CII).
If support is not important, the problem is structured, and conflict is unlikely, make the decision without consulting (AI, AII).
Advantages of Consultation
Disadvantages of Consultation
More Time & effort to consider other’s ideas
Resentment if Insincere
Issues in Designing Groups
Size: Process vs. Content
Heterogeneity vs. Homogeneity
Developing Group Spirit (Goal Setting & Common Enemy)
Circulating an Agenda
Re-Stating the problem (be specific)
Laundry Lists (indicates there was no discussion or debate)
Railroading (GroupThink, if the decision is already made, announce it!)
Bombarding (Dominates the discussion, people agree just to move on)
Voting (Does not measure intensity of preference, consider reasons or alternatives)
Task Leader vs. Maintenance Leader
Task Leaders are argumentative, coercive, just want to leave the meeting with a decision made. Task oriented, demanding. May win argument but not get point across to employees. If they don’t get point across will not improve.
Maintenance Leaders are concerned about people voicing their opinion and participating, not the results of the meeting. They look for wasys to find value in what people say, despite how long it takes to come to agreement, they realize that implementaiton will be faster if everyone honestly buys-in.
List four attributes of Effective Teams
Have a clear purpose
Know the score
Share in the success
Have authority to act
Exam 1 Study Guide
Value Creating Organizations
26-29 Vroom Yetton Decision Making