1. Culture consists of
    the values, beliefs, and practices shared by the majority within a group of people.
  2. Culture includes
    the attitudes, roles, behaviors, and religious or sprititual practices accepted and expected by the cultural group.
  3. A Group's worldview is
    the way in which the group's people explain life events and view life's mysteries.
  4. Values
    which are those ideas and perceptions seen as good and useful.
  5. Spirituality
    concerns the spirit, or soul, and is an element of religion. May include a belief in higher power, creative force, or diving being, or a belief in spirits of departed people and the supernatural.
  6. Religion is
    a formalized system of belief and worship.
  7. Rituals (ceremonial act) or
    practices related to health, illness, birth, and death and prescribed behavior are part of organized religion and sometimes spirituality.
  8. Beliefs are
    convictions or opinions that one considers to be true.
  9. Faith is
    the belief that cannot be proven, or for which no material evidence exists.
  10. Athiest is
    a person who does not believe in God.
  11. Agnostic is
    a person who doubts the existence of God, because it cannot be proved or disproved.
  12. During illness and especially in the face of death,
    religious and spiritual beliefs may be strengthened, questioned, or rejected.
  13. It is important to inquire the spiritual life of
    each individual patient.
  14. Christianity is the
    largest religion in the world. 3 main divisions Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and the Protestant faith.
  15. Christians believe in
    eternal life. Death is viewed as a transition to a life with God.
  16. Beliefs of individuals within each denomination vary,
    and specific spiritual assessment regarding the various issues relevant to health care is essential.
  17. Islam is
    one of the fastest growing religions in the world.
  18. An imam is
    a muslim religious prayer leader and main place of worship is the mosque.
  19. Kosher is
    when food is prepared according to jewish dietary laws during slaughter, processing, and packaging.
  20. Circumcision is a
    Jewish religious ritual performed by a man called a mohel on the eighth day of a boy's life.
  21. Race is
    a biologic way of categorizing people.
  22. Race is
    based on physical characteristics such as skin color and texture, facial characteristics, and body proportions.
  23. Ethnic groups are
    found within race; these groups are usually differentiated by geographic, religious, social, or language differences.
  24. Subcultures are
    smaller groups within the culture whose members have similar views and goals in addition to or in place of those of the main culture.
  25. Subculture may be based on
    a variety of characteristics such as socioeconomic status, education, occupation, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or residence in a rural versus urban area.
  26. Transcultural nursing is
    a term used by Dr. Madeline Leininger to describe care that recognizes cultural diversity and is sensitive to the cultural needs of the patient and family.
  27. Dr. Leininger described human caring as
    what all people need to most grow, remain well, avoid illness, and survive or face death.
  28. Cultural awareness
    involves knowledge of a people's history and ancestry and an appreciation for their artistic expressions, foods, and celebrations.
  29. Cultural sensitivity is
    refraining from using offensive language, respecting accepted patterns of communication, and refraining from speaking in ways that are disrespectful of a person's cultural beliefs.
  30. Cultural competence involves
    knowing yourself, examining your own values, attitudes, beliefs, and prejudices.
  31. Ethnocentrism is
    the tendency of human beings to think that their ways of thinking, behaving, and doing things are the only way or the only right way.
  32. Generalization
    identifies common trends, patterns, and beliefs of a group.
  33. Stereotype is
    a set opinion or belief about the group that is applied to an individual.
  34. Stereotypes can be negative or positive
    but they all ignore the uniqueness of the patient.
  35. Bias or prejudice
    positive or negative attitude or opinion that is unsupported by evidence.
  36. All patients should be
    given the same level of care regardless of race, socioeconomic status, gender, age, spiritual/religious orientation, or personal habits.
  37. Dialects
    regional variations of the language with different pronounciation, grammar, or word meanings.
  38. Personal space
    space acceptable between two people when conversing that is appropriate, acceptable touching, and meaning of gestures such as head nodding.
  39. Patriarchal
    male dominates in the family household.
  40. Matriarchal
    female dominates in the family household.
  41. Egalitarian
    both men and women share equality in the household.
  42. Holistic is
    attention to mental, social, spiritual, and physical aspects. view of health and illness in which nature is a dominant force.
  43. Chi'i
    universal life force or energy. If chi'i is out of balance or in hisharmony, illness may result.
  44. Yin is
    negative, dark, cold, feminine.
  45. Yang is
    positive, light, warm and masculine.
  46. Spiritual distress
    may be related to feelings of guilt and unworthiness if the patient views illness as punishment for wrongdoing or sin.
  47. Evaluation is
    based on achievement of the expected outcomes and should not be based on whether treatment is successful from the standpoint of the nurse's cultural orientation.
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