# Chem Ch.6

 What are the terms used to refer to the relative sizes of atoms and ions? Atomic radius / Ionic radius What is the distance between consecutive crests and troughs on a wave...and what is it measured in? Wavelength (lambda)Measured in nanometers (10-9m) What is the term used for the number of wave cycles that pass through a given point in a given amount of time? What is it measured in? Frequency (v or f)Hertz (Hz) The speed of a wave can be found using... c=v(lambda)a.k.av=f(lambda) What is the accepted value for the speed of light? 2.998*108m/s What is the wavelength spectrum that light spans? 400 to 700 nanometers What are light particles called? Photons What is the equation used to describe the energy given off by a single particle of light? E=hv=hc/(lambda) What is "h" appearing in the light energy equation? Planck's constanth=6.626E-34 J*s What is the value of Rydberg's constant? Rh = 2.180*10-18 J What is the equation for Bohr's model? En = -RH/n2En is energy of the electronRH is Rydberg's constantn is the energy state of the electron What is Bohr's equation to find the change in energy between 2 energy states. hv = -RH[ 1/(nhi)2 - 1/(nlo)2 ]a.k.adelta(E) = Ehi - Elo What is the first quantum number and what does it represent? Quantum number is: nRepresents the principal energy level of the electronCan only be integers What is the second quantum number and what does it represent? 2nd Quantum # is: lIt represents the sublevel Also known as orbitals What are the limitations on Quantum number "l" Must be an integer greater than or equal to 0l must be at least 1 value less than Quantum n What are the "l" sublevel designations and what do they equal (in order) s = 0p = 1d = 2f = 3 What are n and l in a 3d sublevel? n = 3l = 2 Can there be a 2d sublevel? No because the l value cannot be equal or greater than n What is the third Quantum number and what does it refer to? 3rd Quantum # is: mlDenotes the direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus What are the limitations on the Quantum # ml ? ml can only be integer values between l and -l Do the orbitals in a given sublevel have differing energies? No What is the fourth Quantum # and what does it denote? 4th Quantum # is: msDenotes the direction of the electron spin What are the possible values for ms? +(1/2) or -(1/2) 1) Electrons with the same ms value have __ spins. 2) Electrons with the differing ms values have __ spins. 1) Parallel2) Opposed What does the Pauli Exclusion Principle say? Says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four Quantum #s What is the max amount of electrons per orbital and what would their electron spins be? 2 is the max and they would have opposing electron spins (+ and - 1/2) p orbitals lie along which axes? s orbitals are always what shape x, y, and z axes 90○ to each otherSpheres In an electron configuration what denotes the amount of electrons in each sublevel? The superscript (i.e. 1s22s2) What is the electron configuration for 18Ar? What happens after this? 1s22s22p63s23p After this the 4s level is filled before the 3ds are What is the capacity of a d sublevel? 10 electrons What is the capacity of an f sublevel? 14 electrons How do you write an abbreviated electron configuration? Start with the preceding noble gas in brackets and fill in the remaining orbital configurations next to it. What is the abbreviated electron configuration for Lithium? ( 3Li ) [He]2s1 Tell me what sublevel each of these in the periodic table fill: 1) Alkali and Alkaline earth metals 2) Transition metals 3) Group 13 through 18 4) Actinides and Lanthanides 1) s2) d3) p4) f What does Hund's rule say for electrons in Orbital Diagrams When many orbitals are available in a sublevel for a small amount of atoms, the atoms enter into seperate orbitals and maintain parallel spins. In Orbital Diagrams, do paired electrons ever have parallel spins? No, always opposite..only way to live in harmony 1) Solid substances with primarily unpaired electrons that are attracted to a magnetic field are called...? 2) What about those that have only paired electrons? 1) Paramagnetic2) Diamagnetic What does isoelectronic mean..when does it happen? Means having the same electron configurationHappens primarily when elements loose electrons to form ions and thus have the same configuration as another element/ion When cations form and electrons need to be removed to form them where do the first electrons come from? The sublevel with the highest n value "The chemical and physical properties of elements are a function of their atomic number"...what is this statement? Periodic Law The atomic radius of an element is known to be... One half the closest distance between the nuclei of 2 atoms in an element Atomic radii does what from left to right on the periodic table? From top down? Decreases left to rightIncreases top down What do you know about the atomic radius of anions and cations compared to their elemental counterparts? The atomic radius of cations are always smaller than those of their neutral elementsThe atomic radius of anions are always larger than those of their neutral elements What is the charge felt by the outermost electron(s) in an element called? Effective Nuclear ChargeorZ-effective What is the measure of how difficult it is to remove an electron from a gaseous atom? Is it ever negative? Ionization EnergyAlways absorbed so always positive How does Ionization energy differ left to right and top down on the periodic table? Ionization energy increases left to rightdecreases top-down Helium has one of the smallest atomic radii...can you take its electron easily? Nope..need a lot of ionization energy What is electronegativity? This is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself. How does electronegativity normally change throughout the periodic table? Increases from left to rightDecreases top-bottom What is the order of wavelengths on the (also energy on the electromagnetic spectrum) {in terms of Lowest to Highest energy} Radio Wave... LONG WavelengthMicrowaveInfrared (below red)Visible: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo VioletUltraviolet (beyond violet)X-Ray Authorballinbc14 ID44564 Card SetChem Ch.6 DescriptionElectronic Structure and the Periodic Table Updated2010-11-07T04:52:57Z Show Answers