1. Archetypes
    The name Jung gave to the emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people.
  2. big five factors of personality
    The "supertraits" that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality—specifically, neuroticism (emotional instability), extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
  3. cognitive affective processing systems (CAPS)
    According to Mischel, a set of interconnected cognitive systems through which an individual's thoughts and emotions about self and the world become linked together in ways that matter to behavior.
  4. collective unconscious
    Jung's term for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past.
  5. defense mechanisms
    The ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
  6. Ego
    The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality.
  7. empirically keyed test
    A type of test that presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of people who are already known to differ in some central way (such as individuals with a psychological disorder versus mentally healthy individuals).
  8. face validity
    The extent to which a test item appears to be valid to those who are completing it.
  9. Hardiness
    A trait characterized by a sense of commitment and control and a perception of problems as challenges rather than threats.
  10. humanistic perspectives
    Views of personality that stress the person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny, and positive qualities.
  11. Id
    The Freudian structure of personality that consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy.
  12. individual psychology
    The term for Adler's approach, which views people as motivated by purposes and goals and as striving for perfection over pleasure.
  13. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    The most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test.
  14. Oedipus complex
    In Freud's theory, a young boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother.
  15. Personality
    A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.
  16. personological and life story perspectives
    Approaches to personality emphasizing that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story—aspects that distinguish that individual from all others.
  17. projective test
    Personality assessment tool that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it; in other words, to project their own meaning onto it.
  18. psychodynamic perspectives
    Views of personality as primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness) and as developing in stages. Most psychoanalytic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play a role in sculpting personality.
  19. Rorschach inkblot test
    A widely used projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality.
  20. self-concept
    A central theme in Rogers's and other humanists' views; self-concept refers to individuals' overall perceptions and assessments of their abilities, behavior, and personalities.
  21. self-efficacy
    The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
  22. self-report test
    Also called an objective test or inventory, a type of test that directly asks people whether specific items (usually true/false or agree/disagree) describe their personality traits.
  23. social cognitive perspectives
    Approaches to personality emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals; social cognitive psychologists explore the person's ability to reason; to think about the past, present, and future; and to reflect on the self.
  24. Superego
    The Freudian structure of personality harshly judges the morality of our behavior.
  25. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    A projective test designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality.
  26. trait
    An enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors.
  27. trait theories
    Theories stating that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses.
  28. Type A behavior pattern
    A cluster of characteristics—such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile—related to the incidence of heart disease.
  29. Type B behavior pattern
    A cluster of characteristics—such as being relaxed and easygoing—related to good health.
  30. unconditional positive regard
    • Rogers's term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior.
Card Set
Chapter 11