1. Androgens
    The class of sex hormones that predominate in males; they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females.
  2. anorexia nervosa
    An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
  3. broaden-and-build model
    A model emphasizing that the key to the adaptiveness of positive emotional states lies in their effects on our attention and our ability to build resources.
  4. bulimia nervosa
    An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.
  5. Cannon-Bard theory
    Theory stating that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
  6. Catharsis
    The release of anger or aggressive energy by directly or vicariously engaging in anger or aggression; the catharsis hypothesis states that behaving angrily or watching others behave angrily reduces subsequent anger.
  7. display rules
    Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
  8. Drive
    An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.
  9. Emotion
    Feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression.
  10. Estrogens
    The main class of female sex hormones, produced principally by the ovaries.
  11. extrinsic motivation
    Motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
  12. facial feedback hypothesis
    The idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
  13. hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's view that individuals' main needs are satisfied in the following sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
  14. Homeostasis
    The body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state.
  15. human sexual response pattern
    Identified by Masters and Johnson, the four phases of physical reactions that occur in humans as a result of sexual stimulation. These phases are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
  16. Instinct
    An innate (unlearned), biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species.
  17. intrinsic motivation
    Motivation that is based on internal factors such as organismic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), as well as curiosity, challenge, and effort.
  18. James-Lange theory
    Theory stating that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
  19. Motivation
    The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
  20. Need
    A deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
  21. Polygraph
    A machine that monitors bodily changes thought to be influenced by emotional states; it is used by examiners to try to determine whether someone is lying.
  22. self-actualization
    The highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs; the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being.
  23. self-determination theory
    A theory of motivation that proposes that three basic, organismic needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) characterize intrinsic motivation.
  24. self-regulation
    The process by which an organism pursues important objectives, centrally involving getting feedback about how we are doing in our goal pursuits.
  25. set point
    The weight maintained when no effort is made to gain or lose weight.
  26. sexual orientation
    The direction of the person's erotic interests, whether heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
  27. two-factor theory of emotion
    Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two main factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
  28. Yerkes-Dodson law
    • Principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high arousal
Card Set
Chapter 10