VET1400: Neurological drugs

  1. Acepromazine
    • -typically used as pre-med or orally for car trips/fireworks
    • -can lower BP
    • -can lower seizure threshold
    • -cats can have reverse effect (manic)
    • -penile prolapse in stallions
    • -sight hounds highly sensitive
  2. Dexmedetomidine

    aka Dexdomitor
    • -also has analgesic effects
    • -can be reversed with Antisedan
    • (reverse can be partial depending on dose given)
    • -usually given with an opiod
  3. Xylazine
    • -analgesia variable
    • -used extensively in EQUINE
    • (not so much in small animals can cause vomiting in cats and aerophagia in dogs)
    • -Bovine are very sensitive to it
  4. Ketamine
    • -dissociative
    • -by itself not very effective but great in combination (usually combined with diazepam)
    • -mild analgesia UNLESS used as CRI (great analgesia)
    • -injectable only (IV or IM)

    • Used for:
    • -restraint
    • -diagnostic procedures
    • -minor surgical procedures
  5. Thiopental
    • -barbiturate
    • -very lipophillic (fat loving)
    • -potent cardiovascular and resp. depression
    • -sight hounds very sensitive (bc they lack body fat)

    -IV injectable only (tissue necrosis if given perivasularly)
  6. Buprenorphine
    • -C III opiod
    • -has long lasting effects (8-12 hrs) but takes about an hour to be effective when given SQ or sub-lingual
    • -can also be given IV
  7. Butorphanol
    • -C IV opiod
    • -produces variable analgesia and only lasts 1-2 hours
    • -has virtually no analgesic effects when given orally
  8. Phenobarbital
    • -C IV barbiturate, but is not generally used as an anesthetic agent
    • -can be given IV to help control status epilepticus
    • -long half-life so may require loading dose (takes 5 half lives to reach stead state)
  9. Diazepam
    • (Valium)
    • -used IV to treat status epilepticus
    • -can also be given rectally to dogs
  10. cholenergic drugs....

    (Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Dyspnea, Defecation, Emesis)

  11. Pentobarbital

    • -anticonvulsant (65mg/ml)
    • or
    • -euth solution (260-390 mg/ml)
  12. Etomidate
    -primarily used for those with cardiac disease or are critically ill

    -can inhibit adrenocortical function
  13. Guaifenesin
    • -skeletal muscle relaxant
    • -used in combination with another anesthetic drug to induce general anesthesia in horses (CRI)
  14. Propofol
    -Short acting (lasts 2-5 minutes)

    -NO analgesia

    -can cause resp. depression if given too fast
  15. Inhalant Anesthetics
    • 1. Halothane (OLD AND NOT USED ANYMORE)
    • -prolonged response to rate adjustment

    • 2. Isoflurane (most common currently)
    • -rapid induction of anesthesia and short recoveries
    • -vigilant monitoring is needed because animal can change anesthetic planes quickly
    • -can irritate the resp system (coughing next day)

    • 3. Sevoflurane (newest)
    • -very similar to Iso
    • -in large breeds has faster response to rate changes
  16. Reversals (Sympatholytics)
    -Block alpha 2 receptors, used to reverse alpha 2 agonits

    YOHIMBINE reverses Xylazine

    ATIPAMEZOLE reverses Metetomidine (can do partial reversal)
  17. Mu Agonists
    • Block the binding of opiods to their receptors.
    • -used to treat resp and CNS depression from Opiod Overdose!

    Examples: Naloxone and Nalrexone
Card Set
VET1400: Neurological drugs
VET1400: Neurological Drugs