1. Acidifying Agent
    Used in liquid preparations to provide acidic medium for product stability

    • Citric Acid
    • Acetic Acid
    • Fumaric acid
  2. Alkalinizing Agent
    Used in liquid preparations to provide alkaline medium for product stabiity

    • Ammonia solution
    • Ammonium carbonate
    • Diethanolamine
  3. Adsorbent
    An agent capable of holding other molecules onto its surface by physical or chemical (chemiabsorption) means

    • Powdered cellulose
    • Activated charcoal
  4. Aerosol propellant
    Agent responsible for developing the pressure within an aerosol container and expelling the product when the valve is opened

    • Carbon dioxide
    • Dichlorodifluoromethane
    • Dichlorotetrafluoroethane
  5. Air displacement
    Agent emplooyed to displace air in a hermetically sealed container to enhance product stability

    • Nitrogen
    • Carbon dioxide
  6. Antifungal preservative
    Used in liquid and semisolid preparations to prevent growth of fungi. Effectiveness of parabens is usaly enhanced by use in combination.

    • Butylparaben
    • Ethylparaben
    • Methylparaben
  7. Antimicrobial preservative
    Used in liquid and semisolid preparations to prevent growth of microorganisms

    • Benzalkonium chloride
    • Benzethonium chloride
    • Benzyl alcohol
  8. Antioxidant
    Used to prevent deterioration of preparations by oxidation

    • Ascorbic acid
    • Ascorbyl palmitate
    • Butylated hydroxyanisole
  9. Buffering agent
    Used to resist change in pH upon dilution o addition of acid or alkali

    • Potassium metaphosphate
    • Potassium phosphate, monobasic
    • Sodium acetate
  10. Chelating agent
    Substancee that forms stable water-soluble complexes (chelates) with metals; used in some liquid pharmaceuticals as stabilizers to complex heavy metals that might promote instability. In such use they are also called sequestering agents.

    • Edetic acid
    • Edetate disodium
  11. Colorant
    Used to impart color to liquid and solid (tablets and capsules) preparations.

    • FD&C Red No.3
    • FD&C Red No.20
    • FD&C Yellow No.6
  12. Clarifying agent
    Used as a filtering aid for its adsorbent qualities.

  13. Emulsifying agent
    Used to promote and maintain dispersion of finely subdivided particles of liquid in a vehicle in which it is immiscible. End produt may be a liquid emulsion or semisolid emulsion (cream).

    • Acacia
    • Cetomacrogol
    • Cetyl alcohol
  14. Encapsulating agent
    Used to form thin shells to enclose a drug for ease of administration.

    • Gelatin
    • Cellulose acetate phthalate
  15. Flavorant
    Used to impart a pleasant floavor and often odor to a preparation. In addition to the natural flavorants listed, many synthetic ones are used.

    • Anise oil
    • Cinnamon oil
    • Cocoa
  16. Humectant
    used to prevent drying of preparations, particularly ointments and creams.

    • Glycerin
    • Propylene glycol
    • Sorbitol
  17. Levigating agent
    Liquid used as an intervening agent to reduce the particle size of a powder by grinding, usually in a mortar.

    • Mineral oil
    • Glycerin
    • Propylene glycol
  18. Ointment base
    Semisolid vehicle for medicated ointments.

    • Lanolin
    • Hydrophilic ointment
    • Polyethylene glycol ointment
  19. Plasticizer
    Component of film-coating solutions to make film more pliable, enhance spread of coat over tablets, beads, and granules.

    • Diethyl phthalate
    • Glycerin
  20. Solvent
    Used to dissolve another substance in preparation of a solution, may be aqueeous or not (oliginous). Cosolvents, such as water and alcohol (hydroalcoholic) and water and glycerin, may be used when needed. Sterile solvents are used in certain preparations (injections).

    • Alcohol
    • Corn oil
    • Cottonseed oil
  21. Stiffening agent
    Used to increase thickness or hardness of a preparation, usually an ointment.

    • Cetyl alcohol
    • Cetyl esters wax
    • Microcrystalline wax
  22. Suppository base
    Vehicle for suppositories.

    • Cocoa butter
    • Polyethylene glycols (mixtures)
  23. Surfactant (surface active agent)
    Substances that absorb to surfaces or interfaces to reduce surface or interfacial tension. May be used as wetting agents, detergents, or emulsifying agents.

    • Benzalkonium chloride
    • Nonoxynol 10
    • Octoxynol 9
  24. Suspending agent
    Viscosity-increasing agent used to reduce sedimentation rate of particles in a vehicle in which they are not soluble; suspension may be formulated for oral parenteral, opthalmic, topical, or other route.

    • Agar
    • Bentonite
    • Carbomer
  25. Sweetening agent
    Used to impart sweetness to a preparation.

    • Aspartame
    • Dextrose
    • Glycerin
  26. Tablet antiadherents
    Prevent tablets ingredients from sticking to punches and dies during production.

    • Magnesium stearate
    • Talc
  27. Tablet binders
    Substances used to cause adhesion of powder particles in tablet granulations.

    • Acacia
    • Alginic acid
    • Carboxymethylcellulose sodium
  28. Tablet and capsule diluent
    Inert filler to create desired bulk, flow properties, and compression characteristics of tablets and capsules.

    • Dibasic calcium phosphate
    • Kaolin
    • Lactose
  29. Tablet coating agent
    Used to coat a tablet to protect against decomposition by atmospheric oxygen or humidity, to provide a desired release pattern, to mask taste or odor, or for aesthetic purposes. Coating may be sugar, film, or enteric. Sugar coating is water-based; forms a thick covering around a tablet. Sugar-coated tablets generallly start to break up in the stomach. Film forms a thin cover around a formed tablet or bead. Unless it is enteric, film dissolves in the stomach. Enteric coating passes through the stomach to break up in the intestines. Some water-insoluble coatings (ethylcellulose) are used to slow the release of drug in the gastrointestinal tract.
  30. Sugar coating
    • Liquid glucose
    • Sucrose
  31. Film coating
    • Hydroxyethyl cellulose
    • Hydroxypropyl cellulose
    • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
  32. Enteric coating
    • Cellulose acetate phthalate
    • Shellac (35% in alcohol, pharmaceutical glaze)
  33. Tablet direct compression excipient
    Used in direct compression tablet formulations.

    Dibasic calcium phosphate (Ditab)
  34. Tablet disintegrant
    Used in solid forms to promote disruption of the mass into smaller particles mroe readily dispersed or dissolved.

    • Alginic acid
    • Carboxymethylcellulose calcium
    • Microcrystalline cellulose
  35. Tablet glidant
    Used in tablet and capsule formulations to improve flow properies of the powder mixture.

    • Colloidal silica
    • Cornstarch
    • Talc
  36. Tablet lubricant
    Used in tablet formulations to reduce friction during tablet compression.

    • Calcium stearate
    • Magnesium stearate
    • Mineral oil
  37. Tablet or capsule opaquant
    Used to render a coating opaque. May be used alone or with a colorant.

    Titanium dioxide
  38. Tablet polishing agent
    Used to impart an attractive sheen to coated tablets.

    • Carnauba wax
    • White wax
  39. Tonicity agent
    Used to render solution similar to osmotic dextrose characteristics to physiologic fluids ex: in ophthalmic, parenteral, and irrigation fluids.

    Sodium chloride
  40. Vehicle
    Carrying agent used in formulating a variety of liquids for oral and parenteral administration. Generally, oral liquids are aqueous (syrups) or hydroalcoholic (elixirs). Solutions for intravenous use are aqueous, whereas intramuscular injections may be aqueous or oleaginous.
  41. Flavored, sweetened
    • Acacia syrup
    • Aromatic syrup
    • Aromatic elixir
  42. Oleaginous
    • Corn oil
    • Mineral oil
    • Peanut oil
  43. Sterile
    • Bacteriostatic sodium chloride injection
    • Bacteriostatic water for injection
  44. Viscosity-increasing agent
    Used to render preparations more resistant to flow. Used in suspensions to deter sedimentation, in aphthalmic solutions to enhance contact time (methylcellulose), to thicken topical creams.

    • Alginic acid
    • Bentonite
    • Carbomer
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