TOUR2000 Lecture Four

  1. Hofstede's five cultural dimensions:
    • Individualism - Collectivism
    • Masculinity - Femininity
    • Power Distance
    • Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Time Orientation
  2. The fifth added dimension (time orientation)
    • the degree to which members of a natural culture will defer gratification to acheive long term success
    • polychronic vs monochronic => one matter at a time
  3. Criticisms of Hofstedes cultural dimensions
    • country specific results
    • research conducted in 80s
    • not all v.a.b's can be attributed to these dimensions
    • danger of stereotyping
    • western construct applied internationally
    • potential conflicts between dimensions
    • elements of business conduct applied to everyday conduct
  4. What is high context and low context
    • Describes the social framework in which individuals act
    • High context:
    • - importance of relationships
    • - communication is less direct
    • Low context:
    • - relies more on explicit communication
    • - task is more important than the relationship
  5. High context culture characteristics
    • relies on implicit communication
    • emphasises nonverbal communication
    • subordinates tasks to relationships
    • emphasises collective intitiative and decision-making
    • views employer/employee relationship as humanistic
    • relies on intuition or trust rather than facts and statistics
    • prefers indirect style in writing and speaking
    • favours circular or indirect reasoning
    • adheres to the spirit of the law
  6. Low context culture characteristics
    • relies on explicit (literal) communication
    • emphasises verbal communication over nonverbal
    • separetes job tasks from relationships
    • emphasises individual initiative and decision-making
    • views employer/employee relationship as mechanistic
    • relies on facts, statistics and other details of supporting evidence
    • uses direct style in writing and speaking
    • prefers linear reasoning
    • adheres to the letter of the law
Card Set
TOUR2000 Lecture Four
cultural contexts and values