TOUR2000 Lecture Three

  1. Difference in Cultures:
    • History and geography
    • political social and economical organisation
    • languages
    • philosophies
    • beliefs and religions
    • rituals, etiquette and ethics
  2. What is "worldview"?
    • the way people characteristically look out on the universe
    • systemised totality of beliefs about the world
    • system of beliefs that provides a frame of reference for understanding the culture's way of perceiving, thinking and speaking
    • lense we look through
    • shapes behaviours, beliefs, actions etc
    • fundamental understanding of how people look at the world
    • provide social rules and laws that govern almost every aspect of life
  3. Secular: Post/Modern worldview
    • Linear view
    • search for meaning, knowledge, answers to the big questions
    • use science and technology to attempt to explain worlds mysteries
  4. Dualistic worldview
    • Attempt to understand and interperet the spiritual/divine world
    • Religion
  5. Worldview typically adopted by the East:
    • humans are one with nature
    • mind and body are one
    • humans should not try to control nature
    • humans shoudl feel comfortable with anyone
    • science and technology create an illusion of progress
    • enlightenment causes differences to disappear and brings oneness
    • rebirth - no judgement
  6. Worldview typically adopted by the West:
    • humans = seperate from nature
    • humans consist of mind body and soul
    • humans have to manipulate and control nature to survive
    • humans should reward actions competetive in spirit
    • science and technology provide the good life
    • look to science and technology to explain
    • judgement @ end to get into "heaven or hell"
  7. Indigenous/Tribal worldview:
    • Realm of the Gods
    • |
    • Realm of the Humans
    • |
    • Realm of the Dead

    • Bad and good things occure because of the relationships between the realms
    • Meduims, Diviners and animals can move between realms
  8. What is Purity and Pollution?
    • can be physical or spiritual (pollution = uncleanliness)
    • imaginary lines around people time space nature
    • pollution = out of place, not belonging
  9. Purity and Pollution (boundaries)
    What are the six areas of purity and pollution?
    • 1. Time - daily, seasonal, lifetime
    • 2. Place - clean/unclean
    • 3. People - marriage/eating/authority and function (who to associate with)
    • 4. Things - offered in sacrifice
    • 5. Meals - grown, prepared, slaughtered, eaten & shared (eg Islam, Jewish)
    • 6. Others - whoever, whatever can pollute by contact
  10. How do you think issues of purity and pollution impact on guest-host behaviours?
    EG: guests concerned with purity may only want to use towels once => direct impact on hotel and staff
  11. Where can cultural differences be seen in the way we communicate?
    • Verbal
    • - vocab
    • - grammar
    • - sentence structure
    • - sounds

    • Non-verbal
    • - body movement
    • - facial expressions
    • - physical space
    • - touch
    • - time orientation perception
    • - speed
    • - volume
    • - posture
  12. What are some barriers to intercultural communication?
    • anxiety
    • assuming similarity instead of difference
    • ethnocentrism (assuming your culture/background is superior)
    • stereotypes
    • prejudice
    • racism
  13. What are sterotypes/generalisation?
    • A way of mentally organising what is familiar and unfamiliar so we can copare what we do not yet understand with what we already know
    • Can be negative, positive or neutral
    • Risk of assuming what applies to one applies to all
    • The reality is that we are all individuals within our culture
  14. What is ethnocentrism?
    • negative evaluation of other cultures based on the person's own culture
    • belief that your way of doing things is right and preferable
    • a form of superiority
    • the reality is, we may have "different minds but similar problems"
  15. What is racism?
    • belief that all members of a race/cultural background exhibit the same characteristics, qualities, and abilities
    • belief in superiority of one race over the other
    • often related to a negative view of the other person or group
  16. What are some translation problems?
    • Vocabulary equivalence
    • Idiomatic equivalence
    • Grammatical-synatical equivalence
    • - differences in grammar/word order
    • Experiential equivalence
    • - objects or experiences may not exist in all cultures therefore may not have a word for it
  17. What does this mean for a tourism organisation?
    • be aware
    • select simple, specific, concrete words
    • use the most common meaning of words
    • avoid idioms, slang, jargon, buzzwords, and acronyms
    • respect the basic rules of correct grammar
    • be polite and formal
    • accommodate: meet your communication partner halfway
    • develop empathy and patience
    • listen
    • in a business environment: use several communication models
Card Set
TOUR2000 Lecture Three
cultural context and communication