What does the term Costa mean as in the costal facet?
Costa means rib in latin
What does the term facet mean as in the costal facet, costotubercular facet, superior articular facet, and the inferior articular facet mean?
Facet in latin is derived from the word facette which is a small smooth area on a bone.
The term foramen is a common term in anatomy. The vertebral foramen and canal is considered one of the spaces of the vertebrae. What does the term mean in latin?
The term foramen means an aperture.
The term notch as in the vertebrae means...
An indentation at the end of a bone.
The pedicle which is a component of the neural arch is derived from the latin term pediculus. What does this latin term mean?
The term pediculus means foot in latin. The pedicle is also located anterior to the transverse process, the inferior articular process and the superior articular process. If the cadaver is lying face down on an operating table.The process that will be encountered first in a dissection is the transverse process unless you are around T12. The superior articular process may be encountered first
The lamina of the vertebral column is the area of the vertebrae where the transverse process becomes the spinous process. What does the term lamina mean? Hint: Two terms
Lamina means plate or leaf
The term tubercle in latin means... Think about the tubercle located on the shaft of a ribs which articulates with the transverse process.
The term sternon as in the bone of the sternum means...
The most superior landmark of the sternum is the manubrium. What does manubrium mean in latin? Handle or small key?
Manubrium means handle.
The clavicular notch is present on the superior portion of the sternum and articulates with the clavicle. The therm clavicle was derived from the term clavicula which means what in latin?
Clavicula means small key in latin.
In Old School Will Farrell's character is shot in the throat with a dart. Sean william Scott comments on how he got shot in the jugular...Awesome. Jugulum is where the word jugular was derived from. What does jugulum mean in latin?
Jugulum means throat in latin. There is also a jugular notch that is located on the sternum at the most anterior position.
The xipoid process is at the most caudal portion of the xiphoid process. The word xyphoid is derived from the latin root xiphos which means what in English?
Xiphos means sword in English.
In the clavicle which is superior to the first costal bone, or rib on the human body, contains a bony landmark called the acromial end which functions to articulate with the most lateral region of the shoulder called the acromion. The term akromion + osmos make up this term. What do the two terms mean?
akromion means tip while osmos means shoulder.
The term conoid in the conoid tubercle of the clavicle allows for the attachment of the conoid ligament. The conoid term means what in latin?
Cone shaped is the latin term for conoid. While tubercle means swelling.
The trapezoid line is another bony landmark that is found on the inferior region of the clavicle. The trapezoid line serves as the attachment region for what ligament?
The trapezoid ligament attaches to the trapezoid line.
The term fossa means what in english? There are two terms. Think about the fossas of the scapula.
Trench or ditch
The term spine as in the spine of the scapula means a short thorn-like process of bone. The crest of the spine of the scapula is derived from the latin term for bony ridge. What is this term?
crista. Also, the relationship of the crest of the spine of the scapula is that it is the most posterior region of the scapula bone.
The acromion is a bony landmark of the scapula. The acromion is the curved portion of the spine that articulates with the acromial head of the clavicle. This is because the clavicle is superior to the first rib. The first rib articulates with the corocoid process. What muscle does the acromion attach to?
The acromion which is the part of the spine of the scapula attaches to the deltoid muscle.
The spinoglenoid notch is a bony landmark associated with the scapula whose function is to transmit the suprascapular nerve and vessels. What is immediately medial to this and what is immediately lateral to it?
The spine of the scapula is medial to the spinoglenoid notch while the glenoid is lateral to the spinoglenoid notch.
The glenoid cavity's function is to articulate with the head of the humerus. It is derived from the term glenoeides which means what in English?
Greek glenoeides means resembles eye in English.
The supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula is located above the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The attachment of the long head from what muscle is found here? Biceps or Triceps?
The biceps muscle attaches to the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula. Meanwhile the triceps muscle attaches to the tubercle on the inferior portion of the glenoid deemed the infraglenoid tubercle.
The coracoid process is located inferiorly to the acromial process of the spine of the scapula. The coracoid process was derived from the greek term Korakodes which means like a ________ beak?
The coracoid process of the scapula is a major point of attachment for several muscles. The pectoralis minor attaches here along with the coracobrachialis and short head of the biceps muscles. What are the names of the two ligaments that also attach here?
The names of the two ligaments that attach to the superior surface of the coracoid process are the trapezoid ligament and the conoid ligament which originate from the inferior and lateral surface of the clavicle.
The humerus is the largest bone in the arm. The latin term for humerus is counterintuitive. What is the latin term mean?
The latin term humerus means shoulder.
T or F. The humerus has two necks an anatomical and a surgical neck. The anatomical neck is more medial, while the surgical neck is more lateral.
True. The anatomical neck is more medial and attached to the glenoid capsule. The surgical neck is more lateral and has no attachment (at least to know for this class)
T or F. When the humerus is viewed from the anterior, the greater tubercle is more lateral than the lesser tubercle.
True. When the humerus is viewed from the anterior, the greater tubercle is more lateral than the lesser tubercle.
Since the lesser tubercle is more medial than the greater tubercle. It makes sense that it attaches to the ___________ muscle which is located on the anterior portion of the scapula.
The region between the lesser and the greater tubercle on the humerus is a type of sulcus which means furrow or ditch in latin. What is name of this region?
The intertubercular sulcus. It functions to hold the biceps long head tendon which extends between the acromion and the coracoid process of the scapula.
The intertubercular sulcus is located on the humerus and has two lips which are named straightforwardly. What are the names?
the medial lip and the lateral lip are on either side of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus. The lateral lip attaches to the pectoralis major muscle while the teres major and the latissimus dorsi muscles.
Moving rostrocaudally down the humerus arrange the following structures. Surgical neck, sulcus for the radial nerve (spiral groove, radial fossa), and the deltoid tuberosity.
The proper order is surgical neck, deltoid tuberosity and then the sulcus for the radial nerve (spiral groove, radial fossa). Note: the sulcus of the radial nerve when viewed from the anterior is the most lateral sulcus.
The deltoid muscle is from the greek term deltoeides. What does the greek term mean in english?
It means shaped like the letter delta.
The most lateral portion of the distal end of the humerus when viewed from the anterior is derived from the term caput in latin which means head. It's function is to articulate with the radius which is the most lateral bony landmark of the lower arm when also viewed from the anterior. What is the name od this landmark?
The capitulum is the most lateral bony landmark of the distal end of the humerus when viewed from the anterior.
The latin term pulley is used for a boney landmark in the distal end of the humerus. What is the name of this boney landmark? Hint: it articulates with a notch in the ulna with the associated bony landmark in the name.
This bony landmark is the trochlea. The name of the structure of the notch is the trochlear notch of the ulna. The trochlear notch is medial to the spiral groove, or sulcus for the radial nerve on the humerus.
In a posterior view of the humerus. There are two bony landmarks called epicondyles. Recall that the term condyle is derived from the greek term kondylos which means knuckle. What are the names of these two condyles?
The lateral epicondyle and the medial epicondyle. The lateral epicondyle serves in extending the arm while the medial serves in flexing the arm.
The lateral supra condylar ridge is another bony landmark of the humerus. Decipher the name.
A ridge, so an extension of bone that is continuous with and extends above the lateral condyle.
The term coronoid fossa is used to describe a landmark in the humerus. It is not to be confused with corocoid process which is in the scapula. Coronoid is derived from the greek term korone which means hooked or curved. Where is the coronoid found which articulates with this surface?
The coronoid is found on the ulna. When the ulna is viewed from the anterior and it is inferior to the olecranon.
The olecranon fossa is derived from the terms olne which means ulna in latin and kranion which means head. With this in mind, what structure of the ulna occupies this space?
The olecranon process which is the most anterior process of the ulna is the structure of the ulna that occupies the olecranon fossa.
When in the anatomical position, the radius is lateral while the ulna is medial. The radius is derived from the latin term for a spoke of a wheel. It also contains a head which articulates with the capitulum of the humerus. The radial tuberosity is also a bony landmark. What does the radial tuberosity attach to?
The radial tuberosity attaches to the biceps muscle.
What muscle attaches to the olecranon process? Is it the biceps, triceps, or brachialis muscle?
The muscle that attaches to the olecranon process in the ulna is the triceps muscle.
The trochlear notch articulates with what portion of the humerus?
The coronoid process look like a fish hook when the ulna is view from the lateral, and thus reinforces the greek association of the term korone. What attaches to the coronoid process? The brachialis or the triceps?
The brachialis muscle is the muscle that attaches to the coronoid process.
The radial notch, located on the ulna, function's is to articulate with the head of the ________.
The ulnar tuberosity is located distal to the coronoid process of the ulna. They share the attachment of the same muscle. What is this muscle? Triceps brachii, Biceps brachii, or biceps brachialis?
The biceps brachialis muscles attach to both the ulnar tuberosity and the coronoid process of the ulna. This makes sense because the coronoid process is located superior to the ulnar tuberosity.
Ulna is what in latin?
The carpals are the bones of the wrist. The term carpals is derived from the greek word karpos which means what?
wrist is synonymous with the greek term karpos
Stop Letting Those People Touch The Cadavers Hand is a handy mnemonic, no pun intended ;), for remembering the bones of the hand. It works starting with the most lateral and proximal carpal bone and continues to the medial for both layers of bones. Name the bones.
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetal, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid (smallest), Capitate, and Hamate.
The bones of the hand are a bitch. Scaphoid looks like an S but is derived from the greek term skaphe which is like a skiff. What is the english term?
Boat is the english term. When the scaphoid bone is viewed from the anterior the outline resembles a boat with the hull to the lateral portion of the body.
The lunate bone of the hand resembles a ________ when viewed from the anterior....
Triquetal is derived from the term triangular. When viewed from the anteromedial view it resembles a _______.
The latin term for a bone in the hand shaped like a pea is pisium. Name this bone. Describe its relation to the hamate bone of the hand when viewed from the anterior.
The pisiform bone of the hand. It is medial and superior to the hamate bone.
T or F. Moving from the distal to the proximal. A person would encounter the metacarpals before the phalanges.
False. The phalanges are distal to the metacarpals. As a sidenote the phalanges are derived from the greeek term phallanx which means line of soldiers.
Latin terms for Bones
Latin terms defined for bones with example structures. There are also some attachment questions in here.