Intro Film

  1. historiography
    the study of how history is written or constructed--narratives are the result of precesses of selection and construction (film history must be reflected upon, not just in relation to its content, but also in relation to the processes by which it has been written)
  2. metanarrative
    an overarching account of some area of human experience which attempts to make complete sense of that ares (related to metatheory--an overarching, all-embracing system for explaining some area of human experience)

    has been a move away from metanrratives in historical studies and from metetheory in theoretical studies (in film studies)
  3. poetics of presence
    the way in which an image can contain a whole world of significance and meaning
  4. mise-en-scene
    what is filmed (setting, props, costumes, etc.)

    Nelmes also connects with cinematography--how it is filmed (depth of field, focus, lighting, and camera movement)--also called mise-en-shot
  5. movement image
    (coined by Gilles Deleuze)

    a cinema in which the image is at the service of the narrative, and in which the audience experience is of the 'movement' of the film toward the closure of the narrative resolution
  6. time image
    development from the movement image

    suggests a cinema in which the narrative priorities of mainstream commercial cinema are replaced by ones which are more reflective--in particular, our understanding and experience of time becomes central
  7. sensory motor mechanism (SMM)
    the mental processing of audio-visual information in ways that allow us to 'place' and 'manage' the film experience

    There is an implication that the automatic nature of this processing is part of the relatively passive pleasure of mainstream commercial cinema. Other kinds of cinema may disrupt the sensory motor mechanism.
  8. exhibition
    division of the film industry concentrating on the public screening of the film
  9. distribution
    division concentrating on the marketing of film, conneting the producer with the exhibitor by leasing films from the former and renting them to the latter
  10. production
    division concentrating on the making of film
  11. patent pool
    an association of companies, operating collectively in the marketplace by pooling the patents held by each individual company
  12. kinetograph
    Edison's first movie camera
  13. vertical integration
    where a company is organised so that it oversees a product from the planning/development stage, through production, through market distribution, through to the end-user

    in the case of the film industry, this translates to a company controlling production, marketing and exhibition of its film
  14. trust
    a group of companies operating together to control the market for a commodity --illegal in U.S.
  15. oligopoly
    where a state of limited competition exists between a small group of producers or settlers
  16. first-run
    important cinemas would show films immediately upon their theatrical release ('first-run')

    similar local theaters would show films on subsequents runs ('second/third-runs')
  17. National Recovery Administration programme (NRA)
    1930's government program designed to rescue the American economy from the Great Depression (commonly known as 'New Deal')
  18. consent decree
    court order made with the consent of both parties (defendent and plaintiff) which puts to rest the lawsuit brough against the former by the latter
  19. exclusive run
    where a film is only screened in one cinema
  20. multiple run
    where a film is shown simultaneously at a number of cinemas
  21. platforming
    showing a movie in a few cities (in up to 200 screens) to help build up word-of-mouth enthusiasm for "off-center" (mainstream, but not blockbuster) films
  22. saturation run
    where a film opens 'wide' and is shown simultaneously at an enormous number of cinemas, accompanied by heavy media promotion
  23. superwide openings
    linked to saturation runs

    becoming an entrenched stratgy for 'event' films such as big summer releases where a film can open in 3,000+ US and Canadian screens simultaneously

    help ensure that big films reap big returns at box office (particularly on opening weekend before reviews come out)
  24. free publicity
    free coverage of subjects the media feel are newsworthy
  25. paid advertising
    promotion on TV, radio, billboards, printed media and the internet
  26. tie-ins
    mutually beneficial promotion liaisons between films and other consumer products and/or personalities
  27. merchandising
    where manufacturers pay a film company to use a film title or image on their products
  28. independent
    (highly problematic term, various definitions)

    • Nelmes--a production realised outside one of the Majors
    • --does not imply a production context outside the mianstream institutional framework altogether, nor does it imply a film produced in an alternative aesthetic format to "classic Hollywood"
  29. synergy strategy
    combined or related action by a group of individuals or corporations towards a common goal, the combined effect of which exceed the sum of the individual efforts
  30. mise-en-scene (chapter 3)
    meaning, literally, 'put into the scene'

    term originated in theater--everything which appears within the frame including setting, props, costume, and make-up, lighting, the behavior of performers, cinematography, and special effects
  31. editing
    sometimes also referred to as 'montage' (from French monter-'to assemble')

    joining together of different pieces of film stock in post-production
  32. classical Hollywood
    both a historical period within Hollywood cinema (which ended the decline of the vertically integrated studio system in the 1950s), and to the narrative and formal conventions established and promoted during this time; the terms 'classical narrative' and 'Hollywood narrative' are frequently used interchangeable with the term 'mainstream narrative' since this constitutes cinema's dominant mode of story telling
  33. avant-garde
    meaning literally 'advanced guard'

    an aesthetic term for art (and artists) seeking to challenge, subvert or reinvent artistic tenets and conventions
  34. modernism
    a ramatically experimental trend within the arts which grew up at the start of the twentieth century, encompassing a wide array of movements along with the innoations of individual artists not directly affiliated with a particular movement

    involves a rejection of nineteenth-century styles, traditions, and ideas, and a self-conscious (self-reflexive) appraoch to aesthetic forms, in which artistic expression was itself explored, questioned, and reinvented
  35. Russian formalism
    a literary theory which developed in Russia in the early 1920's, which sought to establish a scientific basis for the study of literature and literary effects
  36. ripple-dissolve
    a dissolve is an editing technique using superimposition, which produces a gradual transition between one image and the next, during which the two shots for a time occupy the frame simultaneously, appearing merged together

    emphasizes this transition through the introduction of ripples, or waves, within the image

  37. jump-cut
    an elliptical cut, where the transition between one image and the next is disruptive because it is in some way spatially or temporally inconsisten, or because the two images involved are very similar
  38. diagesis
    the fictional world in which we presume the story takes place
  39. computer-generated imagery (CGI)
    the use of digital software to create, change, or enhance aspects of mise-en-scene
  40. high-key lighting
    lighting design (normally using a three-point system) where there is little contrast between the light and shadowed areas of the frame
  41. low-key lighting
    lighting design where there is a stark contrast between the light and shadowed areas of the frame--frequently produced using ony one light source
  42. femme fatale
    term originated in critical discourses on film noir

    dangerous, seductive, female characters who are normally literally 'fatal' in that they cause the death of the hero
  43. shot/take
    one uninterrupted (uncut) image on-screen whether it is shot with a mobile or a stationary camera

    refers (during shooting) to a single, uninterrupted recording of the camera before the director calls 'cut'
  44. framing
    the choices made about what to include within the frame and what to exclude
  45. depth cues
    provided by the arrangement of setting, lighting, and props within the frame, which determine the degree to which the space depicted in the cinematic image appears to recede backwards and to take on three-dimensionality

    converging lines, size diminution, and the suggestion of different 'planes' in the fore, middle, and background of the shot all accentuate the sense that there is a lot of space between the camera and the farthest visible object in the frame
  46. shot scale
    the range of shots which suggest the apparent distance of an object from the cmaera

    conentionally defined according to the framing of the human form
  47. close-up
    object shown takes up most of the screen (face from neck up)
  48. extreme close-up
    object shown takes up virtually the whole screen (as in a shot of a body part, such as a leg or an eye)
  49. long shot
    object shown (typically human body from head to toe) fills around three-quarters of the height of the screen
  50. extreme long shot
    object shown (typically a human body from head to toe) fills a small fraction of the screen
  51. medium long shot
    also known as the 'plan Americain' because of frequency in classical Hollywood

    human body is shown from mid-calf/knees upward
  52. medium shot
    human body is shown from waist upwards
  53. two-shot/three-shot
    a framing containing two or three people
  54. high-angle shot
    camera looks down from above on to the objects or scene filmed
  55. low-angle shot
    camera looks up from below at objects or scene filmed
  56. straight-on shot
    camera is at same level as objects or scene filmed
  57. canted framing
    camera is not level causing mise-en-scene to appear slanted withing frame
  58. pan
    camera movement in which camera itself remains in the same place but swivels round horizontally
  59. whip-pan
    very fast pan
  60. track/tracking shot/dolly shot
    camera movement in which the camera moves horizontally by travelling along the ground (originally on 'tracks' on which a wheeled support 'dolly' for camera could be mounted)
  61. tilt
    camera movement in which the camera remains in one place but swivels up or down
  62. crane shot
    camera movement in which camera moves above the ground in any direction (for which it is mounted on the arm of a special 'camera crane')
  63. establishing shot
    shot at start of film or scene which establishes spatial relationships within mise-en-scene and locates the story within the diagesis
  64. aperture
    opening within a lens controlling the amount of light that passes through the lens to the film

    smaller perture= less light hitting film
  65. focal length
    the ability of a lens to bend the incoming light on to the film plane

    shorter focal length provides wider angle of view (dictates what appears within frame)

    longer focal length provides narrower field of view but greater magnification of what is shown
  66. faster speed film speed/speed of film stock
    sensitivity of the photographic emulsion of the film to light

    higher speed of film will require less light (smaller aperture may be used) in order to produce a properly exposed image--tends to provide greater contrast in tone than slower film stock
  67. zoom
    shot in which lens alters the angle of view (either from narrow to wide or wide to narrow)

    effect is sudden change in shot scale within one take
  68. superimposition
    process by which more than one image is exposed on the same frames of the film stock
  69. matte shot
    type of shot in which aspects of mise-en-scene are photographed separately and then combined into one image in post-production

    opaque images mask out certain areas of film negative, and subsequent passes through the camera allow the initially matted-out space to be exposed with another image--nowadays often achieved using 'blue screen'- process where action filmed in front of a blue screen. footage then used to create an image of performers infront of a dark background, silhouette of the performer against a clear background, which is used to 'cut out' space for performer in the scene on to which the action is to be matted
  70. cut
    joining of two strips of film in the editing room, and the resulting immediate change from one image to another on-screen
  71. fade
    an editing technique in which one of the juxtaposed images in a black screen

    • 'fade out' -- image slowly darkens
    • 'fade in' -- image slowly emerges out of darkness
  72. iris-in/out
    editing techniques in which the transition from one imag to another is marked by the closing and reopening of an 'irish' or circular hole in center of frame
  73. cross-cutting
    editing that alternates shots occurring in different story locations to imply that the events shown are occurring simultaneously
  74. impact editing
    editing that produces violent contrast between images, most often by switching between close and long shot scales
  75. overlapping editing
    editing where shots repeat part or all of the action shown in the previous shot
  76. 180 rule
    editing technique which dictates that the camera should remain on one side of an imaginary line drawn through a scene
  77. 30 rule
    editing technique which dictates that the camera should be stationed at an angle of at least 30 degrees from its location in the previous shot
  78. eyeline match
    cut in which one shot shows a person looking at something off-screen, and the other shot is thereby posited as the object of that person's gaze

    more usually the shot showing the gazing person comes first, although cuts which show the gazer second are by no means uncommon
  79. match on action
    cut which joins two spaces together by virtue of the fact that an action shown in the first shot is then completed in the second
  80. shot-reverse shot
    cut which switches between complementary spaces, sometimes with the camera stationed in almost opposing/facing positions within the confines of the 180 degree rule
  81. sound-bridge
    an audio connection between scenes, where sound from one scene continues into the beginning of the scene which follows, or where sound belonging to the opening of a scene begins during the close of the scene which precedes it
  82. pitch
    the height or depth of a musical sound as it is determined by its frequency relative to other notes
  83. timbre
    tonal quality of a musical sound

    (what makes a saxophone sound different from a clarinet)
  84. ideological effects
    has political significance, manipulating the spectator into specific ways of thinking about and relating to the world
  85. the look
    developed as a central concept in relation to the control of the spectator

    cinematic looking has also been ssociated with theories ofdesire and ppleasure, theories often founded in psychoanalysis
  86. interpellation
    the distinctive way the film spectator is placed inside the fiction world of the film, placed by the apparatus and by the conventions of film form (such as in shot-reverse shot dialogue editing)
  87. hegemony
    captures the idea that a set of ideas, attitudes, practices, become so dominant that we forget that they are rooted in the exercise of power and that we could choose differently

    hegemonic ideas, attitudes, practices appear as 'common sense' and any alternatives appear odd or potentially threatening by comparison--the ideological rendered invisible
  88. schema
    a familiar pattern recognised by the mind that allows us to orient ourselves and make sense of what is in front of us

    we automatically look for schemas we have become accustomed to from our previous experience of film
  89. studio system
    usually seen to have developed circa 1920 and lasting until circa 1950

    indicates the period of Hollywood history in which the major studios controlled all aspects of the production, distribution and exhibition of their products
  90. postmodern
    used by critics in a number of different ways--can refer to the contemporary historical moment (period after modernity)

    an artistic or aesthetic stle which priveleges surface appearances over 'deep meaning' or 'truth'

    theoretical position which adopts a sceptical attitude towards toalising notions of truth, reality, and progress

    characterized by strategies of irony, intertextuality, pastiche, bricolage, eclecticism, self-reflexivity
  91. intertextuality
    strongly linked with postmodernism

    designates the ways in which a film either explicitly or implicity refers to other films (through allusion, imitation, parody or pastiche) or in its broader sense, the varius relationships one text may have with other texts
  92. eclecticism
    an aesthetic style in which a new composition is composed wholly or in part from elements selected from a range of previous styles, forms, texts, genres drawn from different periods and from both high and popular culture

    one of the principal aesthetic strategies of postmodern art
  93. taxonomy
    the practice of classification

    the practice of classifying films into groups baed on similarities of form and/or content
  94. iconography
    a term used to describe and categorise visual motifs in films--usually associated with genre insofar as visual patterns of setting, dress, props and style have been used to classify and analyze films generically, but also shares similarities with mise-en-scene
  95. self-reflexivity
    used to describe films or texts which self-consciously acknowledge or reflect upon their own status as fictional artefacts and/or the processes involved in their creation--one of the principal aesthetic strategies of postmodern art
  96. sophisticated hyperconsciousness
    term used by Jim Collins to describe the extreme 'knowingness' and high degree of media iteracy evinced by both contemporary cinema and its audience
  97. palimpsest
    literally-a manuscript written over a previous text that has been entirely or partly erased

    figuratively-a film or text with multiple levels of meaning created through dense layers of intertextuality--associated with postmodern aesthetics
  98. extra-textual
    the 'outside' of the film/text

    the range of cultural texts which relate in some way to the film/text, but in a narrower sense refers to the non-filmic intertexts which in varying degrees relate to the film/text (such as marketing and promotional materials, film reviews)
  99. auteur
    French term-originated in the pages of film journal Cahiers du cinema in 1950s

    directors who infuse their films with their distinctive personal vision through the salient manipulation of film technique--"genuine artists"

    contrasted with metteurs-en-scene
  100. metteurs-en-scene
    technically competent directors who merely execute the processes of filmmaking without consistently stamping their 'personality' on the material from one film to the next
  101. auterism
    to study film as if it were the creative expression of a single individual, usually held to be the director
  102. intentional fallacy
    coined by Monroe Beardsley

    the difference between a text's meaning and what its author intended

    criticism dependent on or directed towards uncovering the intentions of the author/artist falls foul of the 'intentional fallacy' insofar as the meaning of a text is not fixed within it, but created in the historically situated act of reading
  103. studio system
    period of Hollywood history in which the major studios controlled all aspects of the production, distribution, and exhibition of their products
  104. intertextuality
    designates the ways in which a film either explicitly or implicity refers to other films or various relationships one text may have with others
  105. synthespians
    recently coined term which describes 'virtual' or non-human actors

    digitally scanned or motion-captured versions of 'real' actors, as well as entirely computer-generated characters
  106. postfeminism
    used here to indicate a version of popularized (and to some extent individualized) feminism that different from (comes after) the highly politicized feminism of 1970s
Card Set
Intro Film
exam 1