AP Euro 3

  1. Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.
    Aristotelian World View
  2. (1514-1564) -studied the anatomical work of the ancient Greek physician Galen. He published On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543), which is concerned the first great work of modern science and became the foundation of modern biology.
    Andreas Vesalius
  3. (1561-1626) - English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum (1620). Encouraged inductive reasoning.
    Francis Bacon
  4. (1546-1601) - Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day, made detailed observations of a new star in 1572.
    Tycho Brahe
  5. (1627-1691) - Physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt.
    Robert Boyle
  6. (1701-1744) – Swedish astronomer who invented measurement of temp- Celsius.
    Andrew Celsius
  7. (1473-1543) - Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. Wrote On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres (1543). Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
    Nicolaus Copernicus
  8. (1571-1630) – German mathematician. Expanded on the work of Brahe and found the orbit of the planets were ellipses
    Johanes Kepler
  9. Sun is the center of the universe. Coperican view.
    Heliocentric Theory
  10. Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian view.
    Geocentric Theory
  11. (1596-1650) - French philosopher and mathematician who was educated by the Jesuits. Discovered analytical geometry and saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical (Cartesian Dualism). Famous for the saying “cogito, ergo sum” (I think therefore I am).
    René Descartes
  12. doubts everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
    Deductive Reasoning
  13. Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.
    Inductive Reasoning
  14. (1677) - Descartes espoused deductive reasoning.
    Discourse on Methods
  15. Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
  16. (1686-1736) -German physicist who developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.
    Gabriel Fahrenheit
  17. (1564-1642) - Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter’s moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World.
    Galileo Galilei
  18. First time scientists had an honored roll in society; center of scientific activity in England during the seventeenth century.
    Gresham College
  19. (1578-1657) - Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body. Laid the foundation of modern medicine.
    William Harvey
  20. (1707-78) - Swedish botanist who developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
    Carl Linnaeus
  21. Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
    Natural Law
  22. (1642-1727) - English scientist and mathematician who developed 3 laws of motion. Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).
    Isaac Newton
  23. Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.
    Ptolemy’s System
  24. Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
    The Royal Society of London
  25. Rousseau, discusses the innocence of man and his corruption by society.
    Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities
  26. (1694-1778) - French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deism. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide.
  27. (1690) Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
    Two Treatise of Civil Government
  28. (1690) Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
    Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  29. Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits.
  30. (1750) Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
    The Spirit of Laws (De L’espirit des Lois)
  31. (1762) Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modelled after the Greek polis.
    The Social Contract
  32. (1759) Voltaire’s novel satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.
  33. (1689-1755) French philosophe. Wrote The Spirit of Laws (1748). Said, "Power checks power" and expressed the idea of separation of powers.
Card Set
AP Euro 3
to Montesquieu