1. the four books that are sruti and the main part in each
    samhitas (Vedas), Brahmanas (rituals), aranyakas (Forest books - sacrifice rites, to be learned in wilderness), Upanisads (Brahman vs. atman)
  2. yayjna
    communal sacrifice, offering into the fire for the Gods
  3. asvamedha
    horse sacrifice - consolidation of a king's dominion and power and the assurance of offspring
  4. Dravidian
    indigenous population of India - assimilated, had different habits, customs, economic organizaiton
  5. Purusa Sukta
    the treatise that offers insight into teh Hindu caste system
  6. the two major notions for the religious justification of the Varna system
    dharma (morality - laws of cosmos) and karma (destiny - everyone must accept that in a previous life actions were performed that affected their current life)
  7. Ambedkar
    • tried to remove notions of discrimination of the Varna system
    • explored reasons for caste system - especialy the untouchables - tried to remove the taboos of this status
  8. the buddha
    • creator of Buddhism (500 years BCE)
    • turned to Buddhism b/c he disliked the social system
  9. jainism
    • another important tradition in India, similar to Buddhism, extremist
    • beliefs in peace, no harm to any being
  10. Hadijan
    the untouchables - Ghandi coined this word - Children/People of God
  11. suddha
    • purity/impurity
    • must address contact between people and things properly - solved through ritual forms
    • Brahmin - leader of the rituals
    • no contact between shudras the upper 3 classes - rituals solve these problems (pollution problems)
  12. auspiciousness/inauspiciousness
    there are certain times to do certain things for purity/pollution problems and to get the best luck?
  13. cosmology
    • has a huge importance in Hinduism as well
    • govern rules for human life (cosmic order)
    • religious behavior, social interaction
  14. Manava Dharmasastra
    Law Code of Manu
  15. varnasramadharma
    • part of dharmasastras - laws in accordance to this varna system (justification for Varna system)
    • keep social order in society
  16. shloka
    • verses that provide a specific metric order for rhyme to be easily memorable to the reader (memorize them quickly and repeat them)
    • part of Law of Manu
  17. the four orders of life (asramas)
    Vedic student, househoulder, forest hermit, wandering ascetic
  18. the chapters of the Law of Manu
    • intro, abotu Brahmins, about Kstatriyas, very small chapter about the lower classes
    • discussion on teh various activities proper to each class
    • sins/penance like purity/impurity
    • chapter devoted to Karma - actions and consequences
  19. karma
    • action - the consequences of those actions, you are responsible for your actions
    • present, past, future
  20. sramana movement
    • counter movement to Brahmin domination
    • abandon referal to Brahmin - take individual route to moska (liberation by themselves)
    • developed into Buddhisms and Jainisms
    • through specific practices you can achieve moksa and be relieved from the endless cycles of rebirth
  21. the 3 fundamental ideas to sramana ideology
    • action (karma) leads to rebirth/suffering
    • detachment from action = spiritual emancipation
    • complete detachment - spiritual emancipation through asceticism and focused conciousness
  22. guru
    only the teacher can transmit info to their pupils - the pupils sit right next to them and teach by speaking not writing
  23. Yajnavalkya
    • the main figure in the Upanisads
    • taught that truth can only be found through the negation of all thoughts about it
    • come up with personal solutions, natural/spontaneous understandings of reality
  24. the six main orthodox sramana darsana
    • Sankya and yoga (metaphysics)
    • Nyaya and Vaisesika (disccusion on logic, epistemology)
    • Mimamsa and Vedanta (interpretation of sruti literature)
  25. buddhi
    • awakening
    • final element of sankhya trend
    • ability to truthfully see what reality is
    • appreciate reality
  26. literal meaning of yoga
    yoke, to join, to unite
  27. Patanjali
    the editor of pre-existing material (rather than the creator) of the Yoga Sutras
  28. the four chapters of the YOga Sutras
    • Yogic esctasy (Samadhi) - prolonged state of meditation
    • Realization (sadhana) - practices for ritual/liturgies (contains the 8 limbs of yoga)
    • Marvelous powers (vibhuti) - signs of advancement with supernormal powers
    • isolation (kaivalya)
  29. Bhagavad Gita
    • basically a text on yoga
    • Bhagavad - Ultimate God, leader (Lord Krsna)
    • centers on dialogue between Krsna and Arun
    • transmitted orally
    • about a war between families (Mahabharata Epic)
    • authorship = Vyasa
    • 5th century BCE
    • 18 sections - called teahings
  30. Krsna in Bhagavad Gita
    • represents the intimate love between teh people and God
    • a mentor for Arjun
    • ways to practice exercises to unite themselves with the divinity (to attain liberation)
    • path is yoga! unite with Brahman
  31. Vyasa
    the authorship of Bhagavad Gita
  32. the BG's 3 paths to liberation
    • Jnana yoga (yoga of transcendental knowledge)
    • Karma yoga (yoga of action)
    • Bhakti yoga (yoga of diving loving devotin)
  33. jnana yoga
    yoga of transcendental knowledge - self-restraint, concentration, consideration for all social classes
  34. karma yoga
    • yoga of action
    • action, willing, in accordance with one's own duties and caste ordained dharma
    • perform actions without any attachment to their results/fruits
  35. bhakti yoga
    • yoga of diving loving devotion
    • overarchign message of Gita - subcurrent of yogic practice
    • profound love of divinity
    • tolerance
    • democratization of deity worship
  36. The South Indian origins of Devotionalism (Bhakti)
    • linked to 2nd century BCE in South INdia
    • Tamil saints
    • characteristic of Sangham literature: Tolkappiyam (early Tamil composition that contains a series of passages that associate landscape with elements of romantic love)
  37. Itihasas
    • the hindu epics
    • morals and codes of conduct
    • war, leadership, power, dharma (esp ksatriya dharma)
    • dharma will lead to liberation and love of God!
  38. Ramayana
    • Rama's journey
    • around 1st century CE
    • attributed to Valmiki
    • story of a heroic king who becomes deified
    • message geared toward ksatriya class
    • guidance to devotees
  39. Valmiki
    who the Ramayana is attributed to
  40. avatar
    • reincarnation (manifestation)
    • Rama = reincarnation of Visnu
    • avatar = new form given to this conscoiusness
  41. Mahabharata
    • Great Battle of the Bharatas (Indo-Iranian tribe)
    • history of Kuruksetra war between Pandavas and Kauravas
    • ksatriya dharma
    • relationship between religion and politics (dharma and duty of war with one's own relatives)
  42. Bharat (a)
    • like Mahabharata - means to bear
    • association with sacrificial fire - offerings - preservation of hosuehold fire

    is the shortened form of the official Sanskrit name of India
  43. Pandauvas represent.. and Kauravas represent...
    • Pandavas: dharma (positive parts of human life) - try to regain control of their kingdom
    • kauravas: adharma (non-dharmic behavior that is also a part of human life)

    shows that the epic portrays human behavior - way to understand/perform dharma
  44. when was the Mahabharata composed... by who?
    • develop around 400 BCE, committed to writing around 100 CE
    • Krishna Dvaipayana (Vyasa) = arranger - considered author of the Mahabharata

    first stage to Vyasa, second to Vaishampayana
  45. is the Mahabharata targetted to everyone?
    yes~ this highlights an important position at this time!
  46. adharma
    • w/o righteousness or duty
    • anything against the law of social order
    • not honorable
  47. OM
    • the first syllable of the High Chant - at the top of the hierarchy
    • said to be Brahman as sound - voicing or hearing OM would reveal the nature of Brahman
    • OM begins and ends all speech
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