Exchanging Materials Vocabulary

  1. cytoplasm
    the entire contents of the cell, except the nucleus, bonded by the plasma membrane
  2. transport proteins
    a protein that plays a role in the active or passive movement of specific substances through cell membranes
  3. selectively permeable
    of membranes, allowing some substances to cross and preventing others from crossing
  4. glycoproteins
    a protein linked to a sugar or polysaccharide; component of receptor molecules on the outer surface of cells
  5. glycolipids
    a lipid covalently linked to a sugar or polysaccharide; an important part of animal cell membranes
  6. diffusion
    the movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated area to a less concentrated area
  7. concentration gradient
    a difference in the concentration of a substance over a distance
  8. osmosis
    the movement of water (or another solvent) through a selectively permeable membrane from a solution with a lower concentration of solutes to one with a higher concentration of solutes
  9. turgor
    a cell's swelling against its cell wall caused by the pressure of the cell's contents
  10. passive transport
    the diffusion of a substance through a biological membrane
  11. active transport
    the movement of a substance through a biological membrane against a concentration gradient with the help of metablic energy
  12. facilitated diffusion
    the spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients
  13. endocytosis
    the cellular uptake of materials in which the plasma membrane surrounds and engulfs extracellular materials
  14. exocytosis
    the release of macromolecules from a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
  15. cutile
    the waxy outer layer covering the surfaces of most land-dwelling plants, animals, and fungi
  16. stomates
    the opening between two guard cells in the epidermis of a plant leaf through which gases are exchanged with the air
  17. transpiration
    the loss of water to the atmosphere by a plant through the stomates in its leaves
  18. homeostasis
    the tendencey for an organism to maintain a relatively stable internal environment by regulating its metabloism and adjusting to its environment
  19. ammonia
    a toxic nitrogen compund (NH3) excreted by some aquatic organisms; thought to have been present in Earth's early atmosphere
  20. nephron
    the functional unif of a kidney consisting of a glomerulus, its associated capsule, and tubule, surrounded by capillaries
  21. kidney
    an organ that regulates water and salt levels, filters water and wastes from the blood, and excretes the end products
  22. urinary system
    a vertebrate organ system that regulates levels of water and didssolved substances in the body, excreting wastes as urine
  23. urine
    the solution of wastes excreted from the kidney
  24. ureter
    a muscular tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
  25. urinary bladder
    an organ that stores uribe before it is discharged from the body through the urethra
  26. uretha
    the tube through which urine travels from the bladder to the outise of the body
  27. glomerular capsule
    the cup of a nephron, which filters blood; also called Bowman's capsule
  28. glomerulus
    a ball of capillaries surrounded by a glomerular capsule in the nephron; the site of filtration in the kidneys
  29. aldosterone
    a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland; helps regulate sodium and potassium concentrations and water balance
  30. feedback regulation
    the regulation of the activity of an enzyme by one of its products
  31. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    a hormone released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary (an endocrine gland in the brain); enhances conservation of water by the kidneys
Card Set
Exchanging Materials Vocabulary
Vocabulary for Biology Ch. 3: Exchanging Materials with the Environment