Chapter14 CSAofPatientsCare

  1. Cultural and religion have a strong impact on healthcare
    because they influence on the ways in which people think and behave.
  2. Culture consists of
    the values, beliefs, and practices shared by the majority within a group of people.
  3. Culture includes the
    attitudes, roles, beviors, and religious or spiritual practices accepted and excepted by the cultural group.
  4. A groups worldview is
    the way in which the group's people explain life events and view life's mysteries.
  5. Values are
    those ideas and perceptions seen as good and useful.
  6. Spirituality concerns
    the spirit, or soul, and is an element of religion.
  7. Religion is
    a formalized system of belief and worship.
  8. Rituals (ceremonial acts)
    or practices related to health, illness, birth, and death, and prescribed behavior are parts of organized religion and sometimes spirituality.
  9. Beliefs are
    convictions or opinions that one considers to be true.
  10. Faith is
    a belief that cannot be proven, or for which no material evidence exists.
  11. Athiest is
    a person who does not believe in God.
  12. During illness and especially in the face of death,
    religious and spiritual beliefs may be strengthened, questioned, or rejected.
  13. Beliefs of individuals within each denomination
    vary, and specific spiritual assessment regarding the various issues relevant to health care is essential.
  14. Islam is
    one of the fastest growing religions in the world.
  15. An Imam is
    a muslim religious prayer leader, and the pain place of worship is the mosque.
  16. Kosher is
    when food is prepared according to jewish dietary laws during slaughter, processing, and packaging.
  17. Circumcision is
    a Jewish religious ritual performed by a man call a mohel on the eighth day of a boy's life.
  18. Most Hindus are
    vegetarians because most believe that eating meat involves harming a living creature, which is contrary to their belief.
  19. Taoists believe
    that illness or disease is due to an imbalance in yin and yang.
  20. Buddhist do not believe in
    healing through faith, but believe spiritual peace and liberation from anxiety in promoting health and recovery.
  21. Asian diet consists of
    less meat and more vegetables than that of other Americans.
  22. Race is
    a biological way of categorizing people. Bases on physical characteristics such as skin color and texture, facial and body proportions.
  23. Subcultures are
    smaller groups within the culture whose members have similar views and goals in addition to or in place of those of the main culture.
  24. A subculture may be based on
    socioeconomic status, education, occupation, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or residence in a rural versus urban area.
  25. Transcultural nursing is
    a term used by Dr. Madeline Leininger to describe care that recognizes cultural diversity and is sensitive to the cultural needs of the patient and family.
  26. Dr. Leininger described
    human caring as what all people need most to grow, remain well, avoid illness, and survive or face death.
  27. Cultural awareness
    involves knowledge of a people's history and ancestry and an appreciation for their artistic expressions, foods, and celebrations.
  28. Cultural competence involves
    knowing yourself, examining your own values, attitudes, beliefs, and prejudices.
  29. Cultural sensitivity is
    refraining from using offensive language, respecting accepted patterns of communication, and refraining from speaking in ways that are disrespectful of a person's cultural beliefs.
  30. Ethnocentrism is
    the tendency of human beings to think that their ways of thinking, behaving, and doing things are the only way or the only right way.
  31. Generalization identifies
    common trends, patterns, and beliefs of a group. May be true for the group but not for a person in the group.
  32. Stereotype is
    a set opinion or belief about the group that is applied to an individual.
  33. Stereotypes can be
    negative or positive, but they all ignore the uniqueness of the patient.
  34. Bias or prejudice is
    positive or negative attitude or opinion that is unsupported by evidence.
  35. Dialects are
    regional variations of the language within different pronunciation, grammar or word meanings.
  36. Personal space is
    space acceptable between two people when conversing.
  37. Yin is
    negative, dark, cold, feminine.
  38. Yang is
    positive, light, warm, and masculine.
  39. Keloid formation is
    abnormal scar tissue formation
  40. Sarcoidosis is
    fibrous nodules that can interfere with function common in African American.
  41. Spiritual distress
    maybe related to feelings of guilt and unworthiness if the pt views illness as punishment for wrongdoing or sin.
  42. One's own spiritual or religious beliefs must
    be set aside when they differ from those of the patient.
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Chapter14 CSAofPatientsCare