1. Budding
    Method of viral egress that does not immediately destroy host cell
  2. RNA
    Type of nucleic acid found in the retroviruses
  3. Number of Identical strands of nucleic acid carried by one of the retro virses?
  4. Form of nucleic acid that carries amino acids to the host ribosome?
  5. What is PSA?
    A type of carcinogenic embryonic antigen that is produced in prostate cancer.
  6. What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
  7. What is translation?
    Process in which the nitrogenous base sequence of m-RNA is converted to an amino acid sequence?
  8. Groups of 3 nucleotides on m-RNA?
  9. Phosopolipid membrane covering some viruses?
  10. Number of nucliec acids in any virus?
  11. Group of 3 nucleotides in DNA?
  12. Rupture of host cell wall by the exit of viruses?
  13. Process in which the nitrogenous base sequence of DNA is converted to a sequence on m-RNA?
  14. Liver infection that can result in a carrier state?
  15. Enzyme used by retroviruses to copy information from RNA to DNA?
    Reverse Transcriptase
  16. Type of molecule that causes cells to lose contact inhibition?
    Early Protein
  17. Type of Viral infection in which the virus remains in the nucleoplams after the symptoms have disappeared?
  18. Name for a complete virus?
  19. Destruction of viral coat once it is inside a host cell?
  20. Proteins found in the membranes of virally-infected cell; these mark the cells for immune destruction.
  21. Protein coat of any virus?
  22. Infection in which a childhood herpes virus reappears in a different form in some adults?
  23. Type of virus that can convert normal cells to cancer cells?
  24. Viruses that attack bacteria?
  25. Virus that can cause Infectious Mononucleosis or Burkitt's lymphoma?
  26. Infection in which the virus remains within the host cytoplasm and constantly extrudes for year?
  27. Cycle in which a virus remains inactive in a bacterial chromosome, replicating with the bacterium?
  28. Virus that has integrated inside the host genome?
  29. Type of viral infections in which the host rids the virus from the body?
  30. How are viruses Named?
    • They are named by which diease they cause or location or by their family name.
    • Family Name: -viridae
    • Genus: -virus
  31. Steps of Viral Replication
    Attachment - They bond to our cells by a specific port of entry.

    Penetration - They penetrate our cells by phagocytosis (our cell pulling it in)

    Enveloped viruses can also pentetrate cell by fusion, when the envelope fuses to cell membrane.

    Uncoated - when the viral nucleic acid is seperated from its protein coat.

    Replication (biosynthesis) - making more viruses. Viruses Can replicate it (cytoplams, nucleoplasm or chromosome)

    • Release - budding, lysis (the cell is destroyed) or
    • latency (provirus, when a virus gets in out cell's chromosome and never leaves, everytime we reproduce celsl it will have the virus in the chromosomes)
  32. Early Proteins
    Late Translation
    Early Proteins - Enzymes for nucleic acid replication

    Late Proteins- are the rest of the enzymes that are used to warpa coat, capsomeres and antigens.
  33. How do virions assemble and mature?
    Little peptides for polypeptides and that forms capsomeres and those form the capsid...now we have whole virions.

    Capsid + Nucliec Acid Core = Virion
  34. Provirus
    Viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell's DNA
  35. DNA
    • DNA -------> m-RNA -------------> Protein
    • Transcription Translation
  36. Transctiption
    1. Cleave: Cleave hydrogen bonds between backbones of DNA exposing triplets.

    2. Formation of m-RNA on template
  37. Translation
    • The t-RNA carring the anti-codons bonds to the complementary m-RNA codon on the ribosome.
    • As m-RNA moves the amino acids bond together and form strings of them.
  38. Overt Infection
    • When the virus escapres the cell by lysis --> cell destruction
    • You know you are infected.
    • Has late proteins(capsomeres, enzymes, antigengs) your immune system can "tag" these as being bad and destroy
    • Examples: common cold, infuenza, mumps and rabies
  39. Latent Infection
    • Virus can hide in the nucleus of cell and can stay inactive then become active later on. It goes to the cells of the body that arn't actively reproducing.
    • Can come back with same symptoms such has herpes or mono or different symptoms such as chicken pox coming back as shingles.
    • No late proteins.
  40. Persistent Infection
    • In the cytoplams.
    • You are not sick yourself, but can still spread virus.
    • Ex. HBV
  41. Oncogenic Transformation
    When a normal cell becomes tumor cells.

    Loss of contact inhibition and microtubules.
  42. Interferion
    A chemical produced by a cell that protects the cell around it. Not virus-specific can kill all viruses.

    The infected cell produces the interferion and it diffuses out to surrounding cells. The cell then produces a repressor enzyme that interfers with transcrption and translation.
  43. Tests Used in Lab
    • MSA (mannitol salt agar) - If mannitol can be fermented they will be yellow, if not remain pink.
    • Catalase - use hydrogen peroxide, if bubbles mean catalase is produced.
    • Hemolysis - where the agar around the colony changes color. Alpha -green Bete - Yellow Gama -Red
    • Phenol red mannitol broth - if we put colony in broth and turns yellow it's positive, stays red it will be negative.
    • Taxo A - Bacitracin, look for zone of inhibition
    • Taxo P - Ptochin
  44. Fermentation
    Energy Source - organic compounds

    Electron Carriers - NAD+

    Final electron acceptor - Pyruvic Acid, Acetaldedyge

    End Products - Organic acid or alcohol

    ATP = 2
  45. Anaerobic Respiration
    Energy Source - Inorganic Compounds

    Electron Carriers - NAD+

    Final Electron Acceptor - Nitrate, Sulfate, Carbonate

    ATP = 2<ATP<38
  46. Aerobic Cellular Respiration
    Energy Source - Organic Compounds

    Electron Carriers - NAD+, FAD

    Final Electron Acceptor - O2

    End Products - Water, CO2

    ATP = 38
  47. Influenza
    Virues - eneveloped RNA virus with N and H Spikes

    3 types: A, B, C named by the combinations of the H & N Antigens

    Pandemics have all been type A Viruses

    • Does not usually cause diarrhea or vomiting, Causes LRI and URI
    • Mortality rate for most strains is 1%.
  48. Antigenic Drift
    Small changes = new strains of B and C
  49. Antigenic Shift
    Abrupt, major change in type A = new subtype

    Harder for your body to make antibodies against this type of change.
  50. Recombination Cycle
    When new virses are made.
  51. Cytokine Storm
    This explain why pandemics kill the young and healthy.

    The immune system acts more vigiorsly and produces more cytokines (chemical that kills you) if your healthy
Card Set
2nd test