The lips are covered externally by ______ and internally by ______
The lips muscosa is lined by ______ epithelium.
This is keratinized in _____ and non-keratinized in _______.
ruminants and horses
carnivores and pigs
Labial glands in lips are usually what type of gland and distributed in _______.
The mucosa of the cheeks is lined by ____ epithelium. In ruminants this is studded with ____
cinical buccal papillae
The buccal glands of the cheeks are located in the _____ and may be what type of gland.
mixed (sero mucous)
The mucosa of the hard palate is lined by ____epithelium.
The propria -submucosa of the hard palate is composted of a dense network of _______.
The palantine glands of the hard palate of mainly _______ glands.
In ruminants the dental pad is what type of epithelium, overlying a layer of what type of connective tissue?
heavily keratinized stratified squamous
Soft palate is lined by ______ epithelium.
The propria-submucosa of the soft palate contains ___ glands and _______tissues.
mixed palantine glands
The tongue is a muscular organ covered by ____
The tongue is lined by ________ epithelium which is keratinized or non-keratinized on the dorsal surface and _______ on the ventral surface?
The lingual glands of the tongue are what type of glands?
The dorsal surface of the tongue bears numerous macroscopic _______ which serve either ______ or _____ function.
The mechanical lingual papillae that facilitate the movement of ingesta are ________.
The lingual papillae that perform gustatory functions and contain taste buds are _________.
Filiform Papillae are what type of structure and covered by ______ epithelium.
keratinized stratified squamous
Conical lingual papillae are larger than ___papillae and are or are not highly keratinized?
not highly keratinized
These are flattend papillae that are lens-shaped and present on the torus linguae of ruminants.
Lenticular papillae are covered by _______ epithelium
Keratinized st. squamous
Fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped and are covered by _______epithelium and contain _______ on the dorsal upper surface.
Nonekratinized st. sq.
Which papillae are large and flattened, surounded by an epithelium lined sulcus.
Vallate papillare are covered by a ________ epithelium.
st. squmaous nonkeratinized
Where are the taste buds located in vallate papillae?
The papillary side of the sulcus (grove)
Which papillae are have taste buds located on the sides of folds?
What type of epithelium covers foliate papillae?
st. squamous nonkeratinized
Are foliate papillae absent or present in ruminants and which animal are they rudimentary in?
In taste buds which typer of nerve fiber is closely associated with gustatory cells?
non-mylinated nerve fibers (taste receptors)
What is the name of the cordlike structure present in the tongue of carnivores?
The lyssa is composed of what type of tissue, muscle, vessels etc. and enclosed by __________connective tissue capsule.
white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessels, nerves
What is the name of the large prominence on the caudal part of the dorsal surface of the ruminant tongue?
What is the name of the cartliage persent in the the tongue of horses?
Dorsal lingual cartliage
The tooth consists of which type of highly mineralized structures?
What is the name of the central part of the tooth?
What is the hardest substance in the body which is also part of the tooth?
Enamel is produced by ___?
Dentine is produced by ______.
Which part of the tooth resembles bone?
Which fibers form the peridontal ligament, which anchors the tooth in the alveolus?
Cemento-alveolar (Sharpey's) fibers
What type of teeth are short and cease to grow after eruption is completed?
Brachydonts have a crown, neck and root. That is the crown covered by and what is the root covered by?
Which animals have brachydont teeth?
Carnivores and incisors of ruminants
Which type of teeth are much longer and continue to grow thoughout life?
Which of the following do the Hypsodont teeth have? Crown, Neck, Root.
The entire Hypsodont tooth is covered by what?
Cementum and enamel
What types of animals have hypsodont teeth?
cheek teeth of ruminants, all permanent teeth of horses and canine teeth of pigs.
What type of gland is the parotid? Structurally what type of gland is this?
What shape are the cells in the acinus of parotid glands?
What are the three types of ducts in the parotid salivary gland?
What are the epithelium of the intercalated, striated and interlobular ducts of the parotid?
intercalated: low cuboidal
striated: simple columnar
interlobular: slimple columnar changing to stratified columnar as the ducts become larger and fuse
What type of gland is the mandibular gland?
What type of gland is the sublingual salivary gland?
The main duct of the subingual salivary gland is _________ epithelium.
Sublingual salivary gland in dogs and cats have _______ ducts that are not prominent but are well developed in ruminats and pigs.
Which type of salivary gland is composed of long branched, tubuloacinar secretory units which are predominantly mucous with small flattened serous demilune. Intercalated and striated ducts are almost nonexistant.
Zygomatic salivary gland
Which salivary gland of cats is histologically similar to the zygomatic salivary gland?
Molar salivary gland
What is the general structure of tubular organs and what do they contain?
Tunica Muscularis: smooth or skeletal muscles and Auribach's plexus
Tunical Adventitia (serosa): Outer layer
The esophagus tunica mucosa's epithelim is composed of ______ in dogs and _____ in horses and ______in ruminants?
nonkeratinized in dogs
slightly keratinized in pigs and horses
highly keratinized in ruminants
The lamia muscularis in the espohagus is composed of what type of muscls?
What type of glands are present on the esophagus and where are they located in horses, cats, runimnats, pgis and dogs?
pharyngoesophageal junction in horses, cats and ruminants
cranial half of esophagus in pigs
throughout in dogs
The tunica muscularis of the esophagus is composed of what layers of muscle?
Inner circular and outer longitundinal layer of muscle
The tunica muscularis in is what type of muscle in ruminants, dogs, horses, and cats?
Ruminants and dogs = striated
Horses = skeletal and then 1/3 smooth
cats = skeletal and then 1/5 smooth
The inner circular layer of the tunica muscularis of the esophgus in horses froms the _________.
Which animals have a simple stomach?
Horse, pig and carnivores
Which animals have a compound stomach?
Which parts of the ruminants stomach are nonglandular?
rumen, reticulum and omasum
The epithelium of the nonglandular stomach is ______.
st. squamous and may be keratinized depending on species and diet
The epithelium of the rumen is _______.
Keratinized st. squamous
Describe the lamina muscularis, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa of the rumen.
Lamina Muscularis is absent. Lamina propria blends with submucosa.
Tunica muscularis is composed of an inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle.
Tunica serosa is loose ct. covered by mesothelium containing fat, bood vessels and nerves
Reticulum mucosa is characterised by ____ which have vertical ridges on their sides.
Which papillae are on the mucosa between the reticular folds of the reticulum?
What is the epithelium of the reticulum?
st. squamous keratinized
Describe the propria-submucosa of the reticulum.
collagn and elastic fibers, smooth muscles on upper part of reticular folds
Describe the tunica muscularis of the reticulum.
2 layers smooth muscle following oblique course and cross at right angles
Describe the tunic serosa of the reticulum.
loose ct covered by mesothelium containing fat, blood vessels and nerves
The omasum has what that help in grinding of the food?
Leaves which are studdded with macroscopic papillae
The epithelium of the omasum is _______.
st. squamous keratinized
The glandular region of the stomach is divided into which regions?
Cardiac, fundic and pyloric
The surface of the glandular region of the stomach has smal invaginations continuous with the gastric glands called _______.
The mucosal surface of gastric pits are lined by _____epithelium.
The cardiac gland region is well developed in which species?
Describe the cardiac gland region?
Short simple branched coiled tubular glands that release mucus
What are the cells of the cardiac glands and where are the nuclei?
basal portion of cells
Describe the fundic glands
Straight, brached, tubular and extend into the lamina muscularis
Name the 4 types of cells that comprise the secretory epithelium.
Mucus neck cells
What are mucous neck cells of the fundic gland region and what part do they occupy?
Mucous cells, flat nucleus toward cell base, occupy the neck of the gland
Describe chief cells of the fundic gland region.
The most numerous cells.
Cuboidal or puramidal with spherical nucleus near base of cell.
What do chief cells secrete?
Pepsingen which is transformed into pepsin by HCL
Describe Parietal Cells of the funic gland region.
Larger and less numerous than chief cells and occur singly.
What do the parietal cells of the funic gland region conatin an abundance of carbonic anhydrase which hleps in the formation of what?
Cheif cells versus parietal cells of fudic gland region. Which stains basophilic and which stains with eosin?
Chief are basophilic due to rER and parietal are eosin.
Which cells of the fundic gland retgion are responsible for the production of GIT hormones (gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide)?
Which cells of the funic gland region are wedged betweent he basement membrane and the chief cells and are best demonstrated with silver stain and referred to as argentaffin cells?
What type of cels are pyloric glands?
branched, coiled, tubular glands that are shorter than other gastric glands
Describe the cells of pyloric glands.
Mucuous, flat nuclei located at base of cell.
Which layer of the pyloric gland forms the pyloric sphincter?
Middle circular layer of he tunica muscularis.
How many layers of the Tunica muscularis of the stomach are there and what are they?
outer longitudinal layer
What are the three specialized structures of the small intestine aiding in digestion and absorption?
Muscosal folds, intestinal villi and microvilli on the free surface of the simple columnar epithelial cells.
What is the epithelium of the small intestine?
Simple columnar with numberous goblet cells.
In the tunica mucosa of the small intestine which type of cells have microvilli forming a striated border.
In the tunica mucosa of the small intestine: Where is the smooth ER and Golgi complex versus the rER and free ribosomes?
Apical cytoplasm: smooth ER
Basal cytoplasm: rER and free ribosomes
Where are crypts of Lieberkuhn located?
base of the villi
Argentaffin (enteroendocrine) cells are present in which gland?
Crypts of Liberkuhn give rise to which type of cells?
columnar and goblet
Which cells are present in ruminants and horses near the base of the intestinal gland?
What do Paneth cells poduce?
peptidase and lysozyme
What part of the small intestine forms the core of the villi and surrounds the intestinal glands?
Lamina Propria of the small intestine
What is the lamina propria of the s.i. rich in?
blood vessels, fibrocytes, smooth muscles, plasma cells and mast cells
True or False? Lymphatic nodules are present throughout the lamina propria of the small intestine?
Where is a lacteal located in the si?
center of the villus
Which animal is the lamina muscularis of the s.i. complete?
Where are Brunner's gland mainly located where and what type are they in the dog, ruminants, pigs, horses, cats (serous, mucus, mixed)?
Mucous: Dogs and Ruminants
Serous: Pigs and Horses
Peyers patches (large aggregated lymphatic nodules) are present where?
The layer between the inner and outer smooth muscle layer of the Tunica Muscularis and Serosa of the S.I. is called?
Which animal is the tunica muscularis of the S.I. thickest?
Does the L.I. contain villi?
Does the Li. contain more or less goblet cells than the s.i? Are there more or less lymphatic nodules in the LI than the SI?
More goblet cells
More lymphatic nodules
Does the L.I. contain Paneth cells?
What is the L.I.'s outer longitudinal layer of the tunica muscularis forming flat muscle bands and numerous elastic fibers called?
Which animals have a taenia?
pigs and horses
Which part of the L.I. is there an increase in goblet cells?
The anal canal in which animals has columnar, intermediate and cutaneous zones?
pigs and carnivores
What is the order of the zones of the anal canal in pigs and carnivores?
In which animals are the anal sacs bilateral evaginations of anal mucosa having modified sweat glands?
What is the largest gland in the body?
What are the functions of the liver?
Secretion of bile
Metabolism of protein, CHO, lipid, hemoglobin and drugs
Hemopoiesis (in fetus)
Phagocytosis and detoxification
What is the name of the capsule surrounding the liver?
The c.t. extending from the capsule to the liver is called interlobular c.t. and this is scant in most species except for?
The interlobular connective tissue of the liver is prominent in areas containing branches of hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct and lymphatics called?
What is considered the anatomical unit of the liver, where is the central vein and what are the shape of the lobules?
Classic lobules which have a centrally placed central vein and are hexagonal shaped
What is considered the functional unit in relation to the bile secreation of the liver and what is the shape of the area? Where is the portal area and how many classic lobules are there and in which direction?
Portal lobules and are trianular
portal area in center and 3 classic lobules as central veins at peripheral angles
What is considered the functional unit in relation to metabolic activity? What are the shapes of the lobules, how many central veins and in what direction?
diamond-shaped made of parts of 2 classic lobules
2 central veins at aposing points.
What are 3 surfaces of hepatocytes?
Contact surface between adjacent hepatocytes where apposed cell membranes may have gap junctions and desmosomes.
Which cells after feeding fill with numerous glycogen and lipid inclusions?
Describe the bile canaliculus.
Expanded intercellular space between the membranes of adjacent hepatocytes.
What is the flow of bile?
Bile canaliculi, bile ductules, interlobular bile ducts, heptic ducts, bile duct
What are bile ductules and smaller interlobular bile ducts lined by?
What are larger interlobular bile ducts, hepatic and bile ducts line by?
Which vessel brings blood from the intestine and which vessel supplies oxygenated blood to the liver?
Which part of the liver carry blood from terminal branches of the hepatic artery and portal vein to the central vein?
What is the flow of blood from sinsuoids?
Sinusoids, central vein, hepatic vein caudal vena cava
Which animals do not have a gall bladder?
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Storage, concentration, acidification and delivery of bile
What is the epithilium of the gall bladder
What is considered to be a compound tubuloalveolar gland producing amylase, lipase, trypsin etc.?
The exocrine Pancreas is similar to the parotid gland except:
Presence of centroacinar cells
Intralobular ducts are not striated
Which cells in the exocrine pancrease secrete bicarbonate which raises the pH of the intestinal contents, facilitating action of intestinal digestive enzymes?
Lamellar (Paccinian) corpuscles of the exocrine pancrease are present in which animal?
Avian oral cavity is lined by what type of epithelium?
keratinized stratified squamous.
Are teeth present in a bird?
Bird tongue is lined by what type of epithelium?
What is bird tongue contain a bone?
The esophagus of a bird is covered by what type of epithelium?
Keratinized stratified squamous
What structure in a bird is a storage organ hwere ingested food is moistened by mucous secreation and is a sac like diverticulum of the esophagus?
What does the crop secrete during brooding and mixes with ingested food?
How is the stomach of the bird divided?
glandular proventriculus and muscular ventriculus
The epithelium of the proventiculus is what? It continues into? glands as what type of epithelium
The epithelium of the ventriculus?
The ventriculus is lined by?
Describe the tunica muscularis of the ventriculus.
Consists of smooth muscle, criss-crossed by bands of dense white fibrous connective tissue.
What are present at the birds ileocolic junction?
The cloaca of the bird is divided into which 3 sections.
The cloaca is lined by what type of epithelium?
What part of the avian cloaca has a diverticulum known as cloacal bursa which is a lymphoid organ?