1. What are joint of the thoracic wall?
    • costovertebral joints: ribs and vertebrae
    • sternocostal
    • sternoclavicular
    • costochondral
    • interchondral
    • intervertebral
  2. how many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
  3. Anterior rami of _____ form the intercostal nerves
  4. ____ anterior rami form subcosal nerves
  5. Muscles of the thoracic wall:
    • external intercostal
    • internal intercostal
    • inner most intercostals
    • serratus posterior superior
    • serratus posterior inferior
  6. Intercostal Muscles:
    • Origin: inferior border rib above
    • Insertion: superior border rib below
    • innervation: intercostal nerves
    • Actions- External: elevate ribs in passive and active respiration
    • Internal: depress ribs in active expiration
  7. Serratus Posterior Superior
    • Origin: nuchal ligamnet, spinous process of C7-T3
    • Insertion: superior border of ribs 2-4
    • Innervation: intercostal nerves 2-5
    • Action: elevate ribs
  8. Serratus Posterior Inferior
    • Origin: spinous process of T11-L2
    • Insertion: inferior borders of ribs 8-12
    • Innervation: intercostal nerves 9-12 and T12 nerve
    • Action: depress ribs
  9. Movement of thoracic wall during inspiration:
    • -diaphragm moves down, thoracic cage goes up
    • -Volume increases and pressure decreases
  10. Movement of thoracic wall during Expiration:
    • -volume decreases and pressure increases
    • -pressure in lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure
  11. What are the muscles used in passive inspiration:
    Diaphragm, external intercostal
  12. What are muscles used in passive expiration?
    no muscles used
  13. What muscles are sued during forced inspiration?
    diaphragm, external intercostal, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor and scalenes
  14. What muscles are used during forced Expiration?
    internal intercostal and all abdominal muscles
  15. What are 3 parts of the thoracic cavity?
    • 2 lateral pulmonary cavities
    • 1 central mediastinum
  16. Pulmonary cavity includes:
    lungs and pleura
  17. Mediastinum includes:
    heart, great vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus and lymph nodes
  18. Visceral Pleura
    covers lungs and attaches to surfaces
  19. Parietal Pleura
    lines pulmonary cavities, attaches to thoracic wall, mediastinum and diaphragm
  20. Lungs
    Oxygenate the blood- bring oxygenated air close to deoxygenated venous blood
  21. Right lobe of lung has ___ lobes and ___ fissures and left lobe of lung has __ lobes and __- fissures
    • 3,2
    • 2,1
  22. which structures enter/exit at the hilum?
    • main bronchus
    • pulmonary weins and arteries
    • bronchial vessels
    • lymphatic vessels
    • nerves
  23. describe the bronchial tree
    • trachea sends primary bronchus to each lung (right and left primary bronchus)
    • -primary bronchus branches into bronchial tree
    • -each bronchus divdies into secondary bronchi( 2 on left 3 on right)
    • -each branch then divides into tertiary bronchi that supply broncho pulmonary segments
  24. Bronchioles and alveoli
    tertiary-->Terminal bronchioles-->Respitory bronchioles-->Alveoli which is basic unit of gas exchange
  25. Explain the alveolar-capillary gas exchange
    carbon dioxide moves from red blood cell through alveolar capillary membrane to the alveolus and oxygen travels from alveolus through alveolar capillary membrane to red blood cell
  26. Briefly explain pulmonary artery
    • each lung is supplied by pulmonary artery
    • only de-oxygenated artery in body
  27. briefly explain pulmonary vein
    • each lung is drained by 2 pulmonary vein
    • all 4 pulmonary veins drain into left atrium
    • only oxygenated vein in body
  28. what are some structures in the superior mediastinum
    superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, artch of aorta, trachea, esophagus, vagus nerves and phrenic nerves
  29. The heart pumps __ L of blood every minute
  30. What is the location of the heart
    • lies in the middle mediastinum
    • two thirds lies left of midline
  31. what are the 3 major sulci in the heart?
    • coronary sulcus
    • anterior interventricular sulcus
    • posterior interventricular sulcus
  32. Coronary Sulcus:
    separates atria from ventricles
  33. Anterior interventricular sulcus:
    external boundary b/w right and left ventricles
  34. Posterior interventricular sulcus:
    external boundary b/w ventricles on posterior surface
  35. what does the pericardium do?
    surrounds and protects the heart
  36. The two main layers of percardium are:
    • 1. Fibrous pericardium
    • 2.Serous pericardium
  37. Fibrous pericardium:
    • Superficial layer
    • tough
    • protection
    • anchors heart in place
  38. Serous pericardium:
    • deeper layer
    • thinner then fibrous
    • parietal layer: fuse to fibrous pericardium
    • visceral layer: attaches to heart
  39. Pericardial cavity
    • contain pericardial fluid which reduces friction
    • (b/w two layers of serous)
  40. 3 layers of heart wall:
    • epicardium
    • endocardium
    • myocardium
  41. Epicardium
    • external layer
    • composed of CT
  42. Myocardium
    • middle layer
    • 95% of heart wall
  43. Endocardium
    inner layer
  44. Right atrium recieves deoxygenated blood from three veins:
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
    • coronary sinus
  45. the structures in the right atrium include
    right auricle, anterior wall, posterior wall, inter atrial septum, fossa ovalis, tricuspid valve
  46. Right auricle
    small pouch allows increased volume
  47. Anterior wall
    internal muscular ridges called pectinate muscles
  48. Posterior wall
    IVC, SVC and coronary sinus enter
  49. Fossa ovalis
    oval depression in septum
  50. Inter atrial septum
    seperate the atria
  51. Tricuspid valve
    blood lows from right atrium into right ventricle through tricuspid valve
  52. What type of cardiac muscle lines right ventricle?
    trabeculae carneae
  53. Name of the septum that seperates the ventricles:
  54. Chordinae tendineae
    attached to tricuspid valve which is then attached to papillary msucles
  55. the valve that blood passes through in the right ventricle on its way to lungs:
    pulmonary semilunar valve and then blood goes to pulmonary trunk which divides into right and left pulmonary arteries which supply right and left lungs
  56. blood flows from left atrium into left ventricle through _____ also called left atrioventricular valve
    bicuspid valve
  57. which is the thickest part of the heart
    left ventricle
  58. Valves of the heart:
    • Av valves (b/w atria and ventricles)-prevent blood from returning to atria once gone to ventricles
    • semi-lunar (b/w ventricles and arteries)-prevent blood pumped from the heart from returning
  59. Left coronary artery divides into:
    anterior interventricular branch (or left descending artery) and circumflex branch
  60. right coronary artery divides into the:
    posterior interventricular branch and marginal branch
  61. the circuit for blood to reach heart tissue:
    • blood drains from myocardium into coronary sinus by way of veins
    • -great cardiac vein
    • -middle cardiac vein
    • -small cardiac vein
    • -anterior cardiac veins
  62. Vessels of the superior mediastinum include:
    • Brachicephalic veins
    • superior vena cava
    • arch of aorta
    • brachicephalic trunk
  63. Brachiocephalic veins
    drains head and arm blood into SVC
  64. superior vena cava
    returns blood from all structures superior to diaphragm except heart and lungs
  65. arch of aorta branches into
    • brachiocephalic trunk (right)
    • left common carotid artery
    • left subclavian artery
  66. brachiocephalic trunk divides into
    • right common carotid artery
    • right subclavian artery
  67. what are the nerves in superior mediastinum?
    • Vagus(X)
    • Phrenic(C3,4,5)
  68. Vagus:
    • goes to heart
    • come from medulla and goes down posterolateral to common carotid arteries
    • enters mediastinum posterior to sternoclavicular joints and brachicephalic veins
  69. Phrenic
    • goes to diaphragm
    • -enters mediastinum b/w subclavian vein and brachiocephalic vein
  70. The branches of thoracic aorta includes:
    • posterior intercostal arteries
    • bronchial
    • mediastinal
    • esophageal
    • pericardial
    • superior phrenic
    • celiac trunk
  71. Azygos vein is on the ___ side and the hemiazygos vein is on the ___ side
    right, left
  72. What do the azygos veins drain into?
    superior vena cava
  73. What do the aygos veins drain?
    back, thoraco-abdominal walls and mediastinal viscera
  74. components of the cardiac conduction system are:
    • Sa node
    • AV node
    • atrioventricular bundle
    • right and left bundle branches
    • purkinje fibres
    • electrocardiogram
  75. The atria___ while the ventricles__ in the cardiac cycle
    contract, relax
  76. systole
    muscle is contracting
  77. diastole
    muscle is relaxing
  78. 3 major phases of the cardiac cycle:
    • diastole-chambers relaxed while ventricles fill with blood
    • atria systole- atria contract to complete filling of ventricles
    • ventricle systole-blood get pumped out of heart
  79. Ascultation
    listening to sounds with stethoscope
Card Set
everything in the thorax