Bio 109

  1. Tissues
    groups of cells with a common structure and function
  2. Four main catagories of tissue:
    • 1. epithelial tissue
    • 2. connective tissue
    • 3. nervous tissue
    • 4. muscle tissue
  3. Epithelia are classified by:
    • number of cell layers
    • shape of the cells
  4. Simple epithelium:
    single layer of cells
  5. Stratified epithelium:
    multiple layers of cells
  6. Cuboidal:
    cube shape (like dice)
  7. columnar:
    like bricks on end
  8. squamous:
    flat like floor tiles
  9. Epithelial tissue funtion:
    a barrier protecting against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss.
  10. Basement membrane:
    A dense mat of extracellular matrix that is attached to cells at the base of epithelium.
  11. Connective tissue Structure:
    connective tissues have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix.
  12. Connective Tissue Function:
    To bind and support other tissues.
  13. Three kinds of connective tissue fibers:
    • Collagenous fibers
    • Elastic fibers
    • Reticular fibers
  14. Collagenous fibers:
    made of collagen. Are non-elastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise.
  15. Elastic fibers:
    are long threads of elastin. Provide a rubbery quality.
  16. Reticular fibers:
    are very thin and branched. Composed of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers, they form tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues.
  17. Loose Connective tissue:
    binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place. Has all 3 fiber types
  18. Fibroblasts:
    secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers
  19. Macrophages:
    ameoboid cells that roam through fibers engulfing bacteria and debri of dead cells
  20. Adipose tissue:
    a specialized form of loose connective that stores fat
  21. Adipose tissue funciton:
    pads and insulates the body and stores fuel as fat molecules
  22. Fibrous connective tissue:
    dense, due to its large number of collagenous fibers.
  23. Fibrous connective tissue that attces muscle to bone:
  24. Fibrous connective tissue that attches bone to bone
  25. Cartilage:
    many collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of chondroitin sulfate.
  26. Chondrocytes:
    secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate.
  27. Blood plasma:
    extracellular matrix consisting of water, salts, and dissolved proteins
  28. red blood cell function:
    carry oxygen
  29. white blood cell function:
    defense against invaders
  30. platelet function:
    aid in blood clotting
  31. Nervous tissue:
    senses stimuli and transmits signals
  32. Three types of muscle tissue:
    • skeletal muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
  33. Homeostasis:
    the ability to maintain physiologically favorable internal environments.
  34. Three ways in which an organism maintains homeostasis:
    • thermoregulation
    • osmoregulation
    • excretion
  35. thermoregulation:
    maintaining body temperature within a tolerable range
  36. Osmoregulation:
    regulating solute balance and the gain and loss of water.
  37. Excretion:
    the removal of nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism.
  38. Regulator:
    uses mechanisms of homeostasis to moderate internal change in the face of external fluctuations.
  39. Conformer:
    allows its own internal conditions to alter with the environment.
  40. Four physical processes of heat exchange
    • Convection
    • Conduction
    • Radiation
    • Evaporation
  41. Conduction:
    the direct transfer of thermal motion between molecules in direct contact with each other.
  42. Convection:
    the transfer of heat by the movement of iar or liquid past a surface.
  43. Radiation:
    the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero.
  44. Evaporation:
    the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas.
  45. Adaptations that help animals thermoregulate:
    • insulation/sweating
    • vasodilation (warm the skin = heat loss)
    • vasoconstriction (keep warm blood inside)
    • Countercurrent heat exchange ( lose heat to environment)
    • cooling by evaporative heat loss
    • behavioral repsonses ( move to cooler/ warmer area)
  46. Nonshivering thermogenisis:
    increase metabolic activity within mitochondria, resulting in heat production.
  47. Leptin:
    hormone produced by adipose cells, regulates fat storage and use.
  48. A high leptin level causes:
    causes the brain to depress appetite and to increase muscular activity and body-heat production
  49. Pepsinogen is secreted by:
    Cheif cells
  50. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by:
    parietal cells
  51. Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by:
    Hydrochloric acid
  52. what is the longest section of the alimentary canal?
    the small intestine
  53. most breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients to blood occurs in:
    the small intestine
  54. function of bile salts:
    act as detergents and aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
  55. Aminopeptidase:
    protein-disgesting enzyme secreted by the intestinal epithelium.
  56. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are secreted in inactive form by:
  57. Lipase:
    an enzyme that hydrolyzes fat molecules into glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides.
  58. Most digestion occurs in:
  59. main funtions of jejunum and ileum:
    absorption of nutrients and water.
  60. what has first access on absorbed sugars and and amino acids?
    the liver
  61. Hepatic portal vessel:
    conveys nutrients from capillaries and veins to liver
  62. 3 types of transport systems:
    • Gastrovascular cavity
    • Open circulatory system
    • Closed circulatory system
  63. Gastrovascular system:
    material exchange through diffusion. ( Jellyfish)
  64. Open circulatory system:
    no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid (hemolymph). Hemolymph is pumped into sinuses surrounding organs. (insects, arthrppods)
  65. Closed circulatory system:
    blood is confined to vessels, distinct from interstitial fluid. large vessels branch into smaller ones cursing through organs. (eartworms, vertebrates)
  66. Atria:
    chambers that recieve blood returning to heart.
  67. Ventricles:
    chambers that pump blood out of heart.
  68. Arteries
    carry blood away from heart. only oxygenated when leaving the left ventricle.
  69. Veins:
Card Set
Bio 109
exam #3