1. Virion
    a complete virus particle including its envelope if it has one
  2. Host Range
    refers to the spectrum of hosts that a virus can infect
  3. Antigenic Drift
    results from mutations in genes that code for Hemagglutin and Neuraminidase
  4. Antigenic Shift
    results from gene reassortment possibly after two different viruses infect the same cell (bird/human influenza)
  5. Uncoating
    Once the animal virus enters the host cell's cytoplasm the viral genome must be seperated from its protein coat (released)
  6. Prions
    research suggests that prions are proteins that are folded incorrectly.
  7. Chromosome
    typically a circular (prokaryotes) or linear (eukaryotes) threadlike molecules of DNA
  8. Gene
    the basic unit of heredity is a linear sequence of nucleotides of DNA that form a functional unit of a chromosome or of a plasmid
  9. Transcription
    synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
  10. Translation
    synthesis of protein from information in mRNA
  11. Codon
    In translation, each triplet (sequence of three bases), in mRNA constitutes a codon. Codons are the "words" in the language of nucleic acids.
  12. Anticodon
    Each tRNA has a three base anticodon that is complementary to a particular mRNA codon. Has a binding site for an amino acid. the particular amino acid specified by the mRNA codon.
  13. Vertical Gene Transfer
    When gene from parents to offspring sexual reproduction of plants & animals.
  14. Lateral Gene Transfer
    When they pass genes to other microbes of their same generation.
  15. Transduction
    like transformation is a method of transferring genetic material from one bacterium to another. Carried by Bacteriophage.
  16. Conjugation
    like transformatoin and transduction, genetic information is transferred from one bacterial cell to another.
  17. It requires contact between donor and recipient cells.
  18. It transfer much larger quantities of DNA (occasionally whole Chromosomes)
  19. Prophage
    Phage DNA that is incorporated into the host bacterium's DNA
  20. Transposon
    is a transposable element that contains the genes for transposition, and one or more other genes as well.
  21. Restriction Endonuclease
    aka restriction enzymes protect the bacteria against bacteriophage infection by cutting up the foreign phage DNA into tiny segments
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