a complete virus particle including its envelope if it has one
refers to the spectrum of hosts that a virus can infect
results from mutations in genes that code for Hemagglutin and Neuraminidase
results from gene reassortment possibly after two different viruses infect the same cell (bird/human influenza)
Once the animal virus enters the host cell's cytoplasm the viral genome must be seperated from its protein coat (released)
research suggests that prions are proteins that are folded incorrectly.
typically a circular (prokaryotes) or linear (eukaryotes) threadlike molecules of DNA
the basic unit of heredity is a linear sequence of nucleotides of DNA that form a functional unit of a chromosome or of a plasmid
synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
synthesis of protein from information in mRNA
In translation, each triplet (sequence of three bases), in mRNA constitutes a codon. Codons are the "words" in the language of nucleic acids.
Each tRNA has a three base anticodon that is complementary to a particular mRNA codon. Has a binding site for an amino acid. the particular amino acid specified by the mRNA codon.
Vertical Gene Transfer
When gene from parents to offspring sexual reproduction of plants & animals.
Lateral Gene Transfer
When they pass genes to other microbes of their same generation.
like transformation is a method of transferring genetic material from one bacterium to another. Carried by Bacteriophage.
like transformatoin and transduction, genetic information is transferred from one bacterial cell to another.
It requires contact between donor and recipient cells.
It transfer much larger quantities of DNA (occasionally whole Chromosomes)
Phage DNA that is incorporated into the host bacterium's DNA
is a transposable element that contains the genes for transposition, and one or more other genes as well.
aka restriction enzymes protect the bacteria against bacteriophage infection by cutting up the foreign phage DNA into tiny segments