Micro Exam 2

  1. Endergonic. Absorb or release?
  2. Exergonic. Absorb or release?
  3. Organic compounds need or no need carbon?
  4. H2O organic or inorganic compound?
  5. Is water a temperature buffer?
  6. What release H+ ions. Acid or Base?
  7. What release OH- ions? Acid or base.
  8. What does salts dissociate to?
    Cations and anions.
  9. Is 14 on the pH scale acidic or basic?
  10. What pH do org. like to grow in?
  11. Carbon skeleton.
    Group of carbon in an inorganic molecule.
  12. Macromolecules get what kine bonds?
  13. Monosaccharides how many carbon atoms?
  14. Disaccharides.
    2 or more monosaccharides.
  15. Oligosaccharides?
    2-20 monosaccharides.
  16. Polysaccharides?
    Hundreds cuz.
  17. Lipids essential to structure and function of membranes.
    Yeah cuz.
  18. What get double bonds. Saturated or nonsaturated fats?
  19. Lipid membranes made of?
  20. Steroids have four carbon rings with what attached?
  21. Protiens essential in what?
    Cell structure and func.
  22. Proteins made of what? How many?
    Amino Acids. 20.
  23. Sum of the reactions in organism?

    A) Metabolism.
  24. Catabolism?
    Breakin down.
  25. Anabolism?
    Make reactions. So would you use or release energy?
  26. Oxidation reduction reactions.
    Remember OIL RIG.
  27. What something is oxidized (loss of e-) then it loss or gained energy?
  28. The molecule NAD is an electron shuttle. What?
    NAD ->NADH2. Bring the electrons to another reaction and oxidized back to NAD.
  29. Adding phosphates (pi) to AMP to make it ADP or from ADP to make it ATP is ender or exergonic?
  30. Which get most energy?

    B) ATP
  31. One way to make ATP is Substrate level phosphorylation. How is?
    High energy food source molecule gets transported onto ADP making it ATP.
  32. One way to make ATP is oxidative phosphorylation. How is?
    Food source molecule is oxidized. Energy carried by electron transport chain then made to ATP by chemiosmosis.
  33. One way to make ATP is photophosphorylation. How is?
    Light used to make electrons. Carried by electron transport chain. ATP by chemiosmosis.
  34. What traps light to make it into energy?
  35. Why are enzymes important?
    Drive anabolic reactions and lower activation energy of catabolic reactions.
  36. How to enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions?
    Bind to reactants. Force them to bend > Become unstable and therefore reactive.
  37. What is reaction rate of reactions?
    Rate at which atoms collide hard enough to make energy.
  38. What are parts of an enzyme?
    • Apoenzyme (protein part)
    • Cofactor (non-protein part)
    • =Holoenzyme.
  39. How does temperature affect enzymes?
    • Higher the temp = faster.
    • Too high? = Denatured.
  40. How does pH affect enzyme?
    Most active at 5. any basic? = Denatured.
  41. How does concentration affect enzyme?
    Rate of reaction increases until all active sites are filled. = Saturated.
  42. How does genetic control affect an enzyme?
    Enzymes can only work with genes "on". If you can control the genes "on" and "off", then you control the enzyme.
  43. How do inhibitors control enzymes?
    Control enzyme = control growth or microbes.
  44. How do competitive inhibitors work on enzymes?
    Sit on the place where substrates want to sit. They bump them off.
  45. How do non-competitive inhibitors work on enzymes?
    They sit on the allosteric site, away from where the substrate sits. It alters the place where the substrate sits so it can't sit there anymore.
  46. What is the enzyme pathway?
    Enzyme 1> intermediate A> E2 > IB > E3 > End product.
  47. What does the cofactor NAD stand for?
    Nicotinamide Ademine Nucleotide.
  48. What is most common carb used for energy?
  49. What are 2 ways to get energy from glucose?
    • Fermentation.
    • Respiration.
  50. Cellular respiration occur in what 3 stages?
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs cycle
    • ETC
  51. Aerobic cellular respiration of gettin energy from glucose get what inside?
    • ETC.
    • O2 final e receptor
    • krebs and and etc
    • 38 ATP
  52. Anaerobic cellular respiration of gettin energy from glucose get what inside?
    • ETC
    • NOT O2 as final e receptor.
  53. Meyerhof pathway or carb catabolism is what?
    Oxidation of glucose > pyruvic acid > ATP n NADH
  54. Carb catabolism: Glycolysis use how many ATP in Prep stage?
  55. Carb Catabolism: Glycolysis make how many ATP in Energy-Conserving stage?
  56. Alternative to glycolysis: Pentose Phosphate Pathway. How is?
    Break down pentose and glucose to NADPH and NADP+
  57. Alt to glycolysis: Enter-Doudoroff pathway is what? (Gram (-) uses this)
    Oxidize glucose = 2 NADPH, 1 ATP
  58. How ETC make energy?
    NADH n FADH go into ETC. They lose e- which used to make ATP by chemiosmosis.
  59. Carb catabolism: Fermentation. Release or absorb energy?
  60. Carb catabolism: Fermentation. Need O2?
  61. Carb catabolism: Fermentation. Use Krebs cycle or ETC?
  62. Carb catabolism: Fermentation. Final Electron acceptor?
    Organic molecule.
  63. What does amphibolic pathways mean?
    Metabolic pathways that have catabolic and anabolic func.
  64. Chemical requirements for growth of microorganisms?
    S, C, H, N, O, P

    Remember like the drink. Sound it out loud.
  65. Where can find Psychrophiles? Hot, moderate or cold? What temp.
    Cold. 0-15 C.
  66. Where can find mesophiles? Hot, moderate or cold? What temp.
    Moderate. 25-40 C
  67. Where can find thermophiles? Hot, moderate or cold? What temp.
    Hot. Like the ones on the bottom of the ocean on the vents. 50-60 C.
  68. Psychrotrophs is a type of psychrophile. What is it?
    Fridge temps. Cause food spoilage.
  69. Most common type of org?

    C) Mesophile.
  70. What temp are lab incubators set?
  71. Hyperthermophiles. What temp?
  72. What has endospores?

    A) Thermophiles.
  73. Molds and yeasts grow in what pH?
  74. Osmotic pressure: Isotonic. What?
    No net movement.
  75. Osmotic pressure: Hypertonic. What?
    Water OUT of cell.
  76. Osmotic pressure: Hypotonic. What?
    Water INTO cell.
  77. High osmotic pressure will add or remove water from cells?
  78. How to bacteria multiply?
    Binary Fission.
  79. Phases of bacteria growth?
    • Lag
    • Log
    • Stationary
    • Decline
  80. How you grow bacteria using plate count method?
    Dilute bacteria several times. Inoculate the dilutions.
  81. How you count bacteria using direct microscopic count method?
    # of cells/Vol of area.
  82. Negatice control over the growth of MO refers to what.
    Killing them. Disinfecting, sterilization, antisepsis.
  83. Difference between Antibiotic and Antiseptic?
    • Antibiotic: chemical from one MO to destroy another MO.
    • Antiseptic: chemical used to destroy MO on tissue.
  84. Diff between disinfectant and antiseptic.
    • Disinfectant: non tissue (floor)
    • Antiseptic: Tissue (Hydro Peroxide)
  85. Diff between sterilize and sanitize.
    • Sanitize is MOST MO (considered healthy) gone.
    • Sterile is ALL MO gone.
  86. Suffix -ide means?
    Kill. Insecticide, Fungicide.
  87. Suffix -static means?
    Does NOT kill. PREVENT growth. Bacteriostatic. Fungistatic.
  88. Difference between sepsis and asepsis?
    • Sepsis: MO infection.
    • Asepsis: NO infection.
  89. Bacteria dies at a log rate? True or False?
  90. What denatures proteins and destroys endospores? Moist or dry heat?
  91. What temp of dry heat used to kill bacteria?
  92. Ionizing radiation is what?
    Gamma and Xray. The ones that cause reactive hydroxyl radicals.
  93. Non-ionizing radiation is what?
    UV light. Damage DNA.
  94. How to eval a disinfectant?
    Dilution test or disk diffusion method.
  95. What's more resistant to biocide?

  96. What's more resistant to biocide?

    Gram -
    Gram -
  97. What's more resistant to biocide?

    Cysts of protozoa
    Vege of protozoa
  98. What's more resistant to biocide?

    Virus with fat envelope
    Virus without.
  99. Who coined chemotherapy?
    Paul Ehrlich.
  100. Father of Penicillin?
    Alexander Fleming.
  101. How does penicillin work?
  102. 5 step program for antimicrobial drugs.
    • Inhibition of cell wall
    • Inhibition of Protein synthesis
    • Injury to plasma membrane
    • Inhibition of nucleic acids
    • Inhibition of essential metabolites (enzyme inhibitor)
  103. What's so special about Ampicillin?
    Penicillin only worked against gram + MO. Ampicillin works against gram - too. Board spectrum of activity.
  104. Cell wall made out of what?
  105. Why penicillin is safe for human cells?
    Human cells don't contain cell walls.
  106. What has the 70S -> 50S + 30S structure? Pro or Eukaryotes?
  107. What has the 80S -> 60S + 40S structure? Pro or Eukaryote?
  108. Enzymes: Difference between cofactor and coenzyme?
    Coenzyme is an organic cofactor.
  109. What are two electron shuttle coenzymes?
    • NAD
    • NADH2
Card Set
Micro Exam 2