Journalism Test

  1. What types of questions do you avoid during an interview?
    yes/no questions.
  2. What is a "meaty" quote?
    a good, solid quote that can stand as it's own paragraph.
  3. What does AP stand for?
    Associated Press.
  4. What verb do you use when attributing a quote to a source
  5. In a school publication, how do you refer to a student in second and subsequent references?
    by first name.
  6. In a school publication, how do you refer to a teacher or adult in second and subsequent references?
    by last name.
  7. When the word "freshman" is singular..
  8. when plural
  9. how to spell a tenth grade level
  10. when can you capitalize classes?
    the beginning of a sentence when you are talking about a student
  11. where does the punctuation go when you are quoting someone?
    inside the quotation marks
  12. how to type a quote.
    ," Bob said.
  13. is it okay to write "when asked about the fourth lunch policy Bob said..."
  14. How short should a journalistic paragraph be?
    no more than 4 sentences.
  15. the first paragraph is called the..
    lead paragraph
  16. the first paragraph of a journalistic story should be..
    one sentence long
  17. you should spell out numbers..
    below ten
  18. ending a quote with "Bob said" is a..
  19. verbs in a journalistic story should be..
    past tense
  20. never make yourself what?
    apart of the storyyy.
  21. difference between "there" and "their"
    there is talking about a place. their refers to people's possesion.
  22. what is it's and its
    it's is a contraction of it is. and its is a possesion.
  23. what was the first coloniel newspaper?
    Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick
  24. The first continous newspaper was ..
    The Boston News Letter
  25. Colonial printers set type for their papers..
    one letter at a time
  26. all of the following were traits of the first American newspaper except:
    one sheet in length, letters and essays and absense of colors.
  27. Colonial newspapers obtained their news from:
    letters, material borrowed from whatever source an editor could find and essay
  28. A newspaper published during the American coloniel era with the tag "by authority" meant that this paper was:
    published under the supervision and approval of the British govern.
  29. What is sedition?
    the stirring of rebellion.
  30. what is libel?
    printing false statements.
  31. In the Zenger case of 1735
    Hamilton proved that the truth was a valid defense for libel.
  32. Which of the following did not characterize American newspapers duringthe Revolutionary War era?
    they printed objectively hard news.
  33. American newspapers during the Revolutionary War were largely different from colonial newspapers in that:
    they were one-sided, they overly criticized the government and they sometimes carried cartoons.
  34. American newspapers during the revolutionary war were largely different from modern newspapers b/c
    they typically sided and supported one political party.
  35. Revolutionary newspapers typically aligned themselves w/ one political party which is called..
    Partisan Press.
  36. The acts that newspapers had to "get around" during the revolutionary war era was the..
    stamp act
  37. document that seperatedthe colonies from Britain was called the..
    Declaration of Independence
  38. document which outlines the policies and procedures for the American government is
    The Constitution
  39. first ten ammendments are called
    Bill Of Rights.
  40. Freedom of speech in the first ammendment is guarunteed which is in
    Bill of Rights
  41. Freedom of Speech does not cover:
    obscenity, speech advocating the violent overthrow of the govt., slander, and endangerment of public safety.
  42. Know the first ammendment
  43. When a book is removed from a library in America it is put on the..
    Banned Book List
  44. The last week of September is..
    Banned Books Week
  45. Most common objection raised about books at libraries is..
    unsuitable to age group
  46. Who is Charles Foster Kane based on?
    William Randolph Hurst
  47. Was Hurst okay with the on-screen portrayal of his life?
    not at all
  48. What war did Hearst and Pulitzer start?
    Spanish - American War
  49. What was the name of Kane and Hearsts' palaces'?
    Kane = Xanadu. Hearst = San Simeon.
  50. What was the meaning of Rosebud?
    Kane's sled.
  51. The American Film Institute names this..
    the number one movie of all time.
  52. Elizabeth Cochrane is famous for her stories involving,
    posing as an unwed mother to expose the baby-buying trade, traveling around the world, and exposing the poor treatment of mentally ill patients.
  53. Elizabeth Cochrane's psuedonym was:
    Nellie Bly.
  54. Nellie Bly traveled the world in..
    less than 80 days.
  55. This form of journalism was noted to crusading against abuse of child labor, unsanitary hospitals, and the needs of the poor,
  56. this term for this crusading form of journalism was coined by who? and what book did it come from?
    Teddy Roosevelt. & Pilgrim's Progress
  57. This term describes the era when cities often offered readers 8 or 9 daily papers.
    penny press.
  58. He is primarily associated the penny press movement in American newspapers
    Horace Greely.
  59. The invention of the telegraph made news reporting.
  60. Eye witness reporting came into use during which war?
    Civil War
  61. The style of newswriting that places the most important facts are at the beginning of a news story is known as the..
    inverted pyramid style of writing.
  62. The style of deceptive journalism with flashy headlines and often - fabricated.
    Stories known as yellow journalism.
  63. This style of journalism got its name from
    a cartoon character.
  64. The publisher that madethe newsies go on strike was
    Joseph Pulitzer.
  65. The newsies strike brought attention to what?
    child labor
  66. correct order of dates.
    • Publick Occurrences Both Forreign & Domestick is published. (1690)
    • John Peter Zenger trial (1735)
    • The Bill of Rights is ratified (1791)
    • USS Maine explodes; Spanish American War begins (1898)
    • Newsies strike (1898)
  67. This function of a journalist deals w/ reporting how today's events will affect the future.
  68. This function of a journalist deal w/ informing the public about events related to govt.
  69. This function of a journalist refers to the idea that journalists don't tell you what to think, but they do tell you what to think about.
  70. If you criticize something in an editorial, you should also:
    offer solutions.
  71. The four specific parts of an editorial.
    intro, reaction, details, conclusion.
  72. The acknowledgement or consideration of another point of view is called:
  73. What is an important rule to remember?
    to deal with issues not individuals.
  74. In addition to the editorial, these may also be found on the editorial page:
    columns, opinion features, cartoons, and letters to the editor.
  75. The letter to the editor section is important b/c it is one of the main things that makes a newspaper...
    an open forum.
  76. The allows the staff a place to publish ints editorial policy and policy for the submission, editing and printing of letters to the editor.
  77. The masthead should contain..
    Name of the editor(s)-in-chief, staff members abbreviated editorial policy, advisor or editorial page editors' names, and publisher or principal's name.
  78. Which of the following describe the structure of an editorial cartoon?
    one panel, limited or no dialogue, usually black and white/pen and ink, and often use caricatures.
  79. Editorial cartoons may not:
    contain false info
  80. Know the order of the following events..
    • John Peter Zenger trial (1735)
    • Telegraph begins (1860s)
    • Newsies strike (1898)
    • Tinker vs. Des Mointes decision (1969)
    • Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier (1988)
  81. Editorial cartoons should be:
    simple in design, timely, centered on one topic, and well-drawn.
  82. says that once a govt creates a place for people to express their opinions, it cannot control the ideas expressed there
    forum theory
  83. is written defamation; damaging false statements against another person or institution that appear in writing or from a script.
  84. speech or written work which incites others to acts of violence.
    seditious speech
  85. is a knowing disregard of the truth and not just an honest mistake of fact.
    actual malice
  86. damaging a false statement against another person or institution which is spoken or broadcast (not from a written script)
  87. journalists deal with recording society's events.
    social function.
  88. journalist deals with reporting how today's events will affect the future
    sentry function
  89. journalist deals with providing entertainment for the public.
    entertainment function
  90. journalist deals with informing the public about events related to the govt.
    political function
  91. journalist refers to journalists' not telling you what to think, but telling you what to think about.
    agenda-setting function
  92. journalist deals with establishing a forum to express ideas.
    marketplace function
  93. journalism ideas with advertisers' payment for newspapers and news broadcasts; it involves money and products.
    enonomic function
  94. journalist deals with keeping track of important events and statistics.
    record-keeping function
  95. young boys deal with the injustices of child labor as they try to make a living by selling newspapers as the turn of the century.
  96. a woman reports on a criminal investigation which leads to issues regarding the use of sources as well as fairness of the press
    absense of malice
  97. two young reporters search for the truth about the break-in at the watergate hotel
    all the president's men
  98. a managing editor and metro editor go head-to-head about whether or not to run a story implicating two young black boys in the murder of two white businessmen.
    the paper
  99. the story of investigating what a journalist's last word really means.
    Citizen Kane
  100. Bob Woodward's anonymous source in All the President's Men ..
    Deep Throat
  101. What was the meaning for "Rosebud"?
    his sled
  102. what does "carrying the banner" mean?
    a newspapers headline
  103. Meg Carter's decision to print info about Teresa Perone's abortion lead to...
    Teresa's suicide.
  104. At the end of The Paper, the front page headline of the New York Sun reads...
    "They didn't do it"
  105. says that if you must print or air criticism of someone, permit that person to respond to the criticism in the same story.
    simultaneous rebuttal
  106. warns against glorifying bad behavior, invading the privacy of others, and seeking "overstatement"
    Good taste
  107. insists on valuing ethical standards and doing your best to uphold basic ethical principles.
  108. says that you should not pass off others' works as your own.
  109. says you should not apply different standards to different groups
    fairness to all.
  110. journalists are like...
    detectives, scholars, and writers.
  111. a common saying among journalists is.. "if your mother says she loves you,
    check it out.
  112. ethical dilemmas journalists face every day include issues involving.
    privacy, confidentiality, national security, and "freebies"/kickbacks.
  113. a good, ethical journalist doesn't just ask what can i (legally) do, but what i should (ethically) do.
  114. a good, ethical journalist avoids..
  115. says that it should be your goal to produce the most amount of public good/happiness.
    Utilitarian theory.
  116. says you should establish rules that apply to every situation.
    Deontological theory.
  117. a combination of the two other ethical theories.
    Rule Utilitarian
  118. one ethical possibility would be to weigh the...
    harms against benefits.
  119. F stands for....
  120. case involving censorship of a Missouri student newspaper containing articles involving teen pregnancy and divorce.
    Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier.
  121. case involved three students rights to free speech concerning their wearing black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War.
    Tinker vs. Des Moines
  122. scholastic journalism says that scholastic free speech may only be censored in cases involving a material and substantial disruption to the learning environment
    The Tinker standard
  123. Hazelwood standard was set in
  124. The Tinker standard was set in..
  125. Schools operating under the Tinker standard are an..
    open forum.
  126. what is brevity?
    you should succinct and to the point; don't use unnecessary elaboration.
  127. what is clarity?
    you should be clear and concise; don't confuse your readers.
  128. what is relevance?
    only print material that is applicable to the issue at hand
  129. what is objectivity?
    keep your opinion out of the story; stick to the facts.
  130. what is currency?
    refers to the idea that an event should be new and current.
  131. what is prominence?
    refers to how well-known an individual is at school, community, or nation.
  132. what is conflict?
    tension, surprise and suspense of a story; arises with any good story topic.
  133. what is proximity?
    the event should be geographically near to your place of publication or to your readers.
  134. what is consequence?
    importance of the event and its news value.
  135. how do you get good quotes?
    ask goood questions.
  136. is it okay to hand someone a list of questions and ask them to answer them?
  137. what should the first five questions of an interview be?
    fact questions
  138. why is it important to ask follow up questions?
    because otherwise you might not have enough to work with & you'll get more detailed answers.
  139. what should you do if you use a tape recorder during an interview?
    ask the interviewee for permission to record, double check to make sure the recorder is working, and take notes.
  140. what's the difference between hearing and listening?
    hearing is when you passively take in what the interviewee is saying; listening is when you actively pay attention to what the person says.
  141. what is the best lead?
    one that grabs the reader's attention through descriptive phrasing.
  142. how long should a lead for a news story be?
    no more than 1 sentence.
  143. what types of leads should you avoid?
    quote/question leads
  144. a lead for a feature or sports story can be up to....
    four sentences.
  145. what is the simple pattern for a good news story?
    lead, quote, transition, quote, transition, quote, transition, quote.
  146. what is a quote that represents only part of what the interviewee actually says?
    partial quote
  147. what is a quote that accurately represents exactly what the interviewee said?
    direct quote.
  148. what is a quote from the interviewee that the reporter paraphrases?
    indirect quote
  149. what is a quote that should be placed at the beginning/end of the story?
  150. what is the purpose of transitions?
    move smoothly between quotes, make your story "flow" better, and provide some structure to your story.
  151. what should a good headline do?
    read like a complete sentence using present tense verbs and no article or conjunctions.
  152. what is cropping?
    marking a photo so that it fits in the box
  153. what is an index?
    alphabetical list of all students, teachers, activities, etc.
  154. what is an endsheet?
    very front and very back pages
  155. what is the theme?
    saying/topic which pulls the book together
  156. what are the traditional sections in the yearbook?
    "People" "Student Life" "Academics" "Sports" "Organizations" "Advertisements"
  157. What is a ladder?
    a "map" used to plan all the pages in the book and what is on each page.
  158. what are dividers?
    pages that introduce each section
  159. what should the first sentence of a caption be?
    the names and classes of the person or people in the picture and what's happening/doing in the picture.
  160. what should the second sentence be in a yearbook caption?
    what happened before and or after the picture was taken
  161. what should the tense of each sentence in a caption be?
    first sentence should be present tense; second should be past tense
  162. where should the subjects of the photos face?
    toward the middle of the spread
  163. what is the primary purpose of columns?
    keep everything neat and in order.
  164. columns across a spread should be...
    exactly the same widths.
  165. how many picas are there in an inch?
  166. what should photographers aim for in their photos?
    diverse subjects.
  167. is it ok to spell out names for clarification even if the spelling is incorrect?
  168. where does the attribution go in broadcasting?
    before the quote.
  169. what is the rundown?
    list of all the elements in a broadcast
  170. what is the A block?
    local news
  171. what is the B block?
    national news
  172. what is the C block?
  173. what is the D block?
  174. what is a voiceover (VO)?
    where the anchor/reporter talks over a pre-prepared package.
  175. what is an SOT?
    an interviewee is shown briefly on screen
  176. what is NATS?
    a package incorporates the natural sound
  177. what is target audience?
    the audience which the station hopes to attract, determined by the station's format and taken into account by the station's advertisers.
  178. what is dead air?
    silence between songs, announcements or commercials
  179. what is frequency?
    position of a station on the dial
  180. what is call letters?
    station's name (in the South, beginning with W)
  181. what is syndicated programming?
    programs which are broadcast across the country or across a group of states.
  182. what is the FCC?
    Federal Communications Commission which oversees the licensing and broadcasting regulations of radio and television stations.
  183. what should defamation include?
    defamatory statement that identifies the plaintiff, be published or broadcasted, result in damages to the plaintiff and/or the plaintiff's reputation and not be privileged under the law.
  184. what is invasion of privacy?
    violation of a person's personal affairs.
  185. what is the correct way to identify a football player in a sports story?
    class/position on the team/ first and last name.
  186. when writing a sports story you should go to practice to...
    watch the team in action, be able to talk to the players, and have a basis for comparison when writing your game story.
  187. who should you get quotes from in a sports story?
    coaches, players, spectators, and the opposing team.
  188. what should you focus on when choosing a topic for a feature story?
    who, how and why?
  189. most feature stories are....
  190. good personality features contain quotes from...
    feature subject him/herself, his/her friends, his/her family, and his/her teachers.
  191. what are 3 parts of the camera that vary from model to model?
    shutter, viewfinder, lens.
  192. what is exposure?
    amount of light you put into taking a picture
  193. what should you do when preparing for pictures?
    be sure people and objects are exactly where you want them, check the focus again, hold the camera steady with with 2 hands and 9 fingers and stand with your feet shoulder width apart with your weight evenly balanced
  194. what is a contact sheet?
    in the darkroom you can create a single print that contains a positive image of each of your negatives.
  195. what is an important thing to keep out of the darkroom
  196. what are the functions of a photograph?
    capturing attention, providing info, establishing links with readers, and acting as a layout device.
  197. what is the criteria for a photo selection?
    content, relevance, position on the page, and shape.
  198. The National Association of Press Photographers has developed a policy regarding.....
    digital photo manipulation.
  199. what are profile columns?
    like personality features, but the columnist can write about his/her opinions about the subject (person).
  200. what are fashion and fad columns?
    contains opinions about the latest trends and styles.
  201. what are entertainment columns?
    reviews of plays, concerts, movies, etc.
  202. what are Q & A columns?
    include everything from advice to school questions.
  203. if you criticize something in an editorial you should...
    offer solutions.
  204. an editorial should include....
    an introduction the problem and your point of view, a reaction to the problem, details to support your position and a conclusion to sum up your points.
  205. what is a concession?
    acknowledgement or consideration of another point of view.
  206. what are the four specific parts of an editorial?
    intro, reaction, details, conclusion.
  207. when writing an editorial, it is important to deal with...
    issues, not individuals.
  208. what is in an editorial page in addition to editorials?
    columns, cartoons, opinion features, and letters to the editor.
  209. Why is the Letters to the Editor section important?
    Open forum
  210. what is a point-counterpoint?
    allows individuals with opposing views on a topic to express them in side by side opinion articles.
  211. what is a masthead?
    allows the staff a place to publish its editorial policy and policy for the submission, editing and printing of Letters to the Editor.
  212. The masthead should contain...
    names of the Editor(s)-in-Chief and staff members, adviser or editorial page editor's names, publisher or principal's name, and an abbreviated editorial policy.
  213. Editorial cartoons are structured with...
    one panel, limited or no dialogue, usually black and white/ pen and ink, and often use caricatures.
  214. Editorial Cartoons may NOT...
    contain false info
  215. Bill Mauldin is most famous for his cartoons depicting
    the lives of regular soldiers during WWII
Card Set
Journalism Test
the first nine weeks test.