The pterygoid process has a very definitive shape. The ptery prefix means...
The animals platypus and platyhelminthes have the prefix plat in them. What does it mean?
Flat or Broad
The term tuber as in the costotubercular facet of the transverse process means...
The term sulcus as in the gingival sulcus is another term for....
The term inter as in the intervertebral foramen (which is formed by the combination of the inferior and superior articular process of the neural arch (sp. the pedicle)
The term glenoid means...
The prefix infra means below. What is the opposing term?
The portion of the scapula that is designated the coracoid resembles what animal's beak?
Crista is another term for what?
There is often a deep region on the backside of an anterior tooth that resembles a trench or ditch. What is this called?
If a structure or a part of a structure is closer to the spinal cord is it considered to be medial or lateral?
What is the nerve that innervates the posterior arm and forearm?
The radial nerve. (i.e. the radius-the thicker or shorter of the two bones in the forearm. The radius is lateral to the ulna)
What nerve, if it is medial to the mandible, may be damaged as a result of a reckless dentist not examining x-rays prior to performing a wisdom tooth extraction?
The lingual nerve
True or false, when a person is in the true anatomical position, the pinky is considered medial to the spinal cord?
True. When a person is in the true anatomical position, their pinky is considered medial to the spinal cord while their thumb is lateral to the spinal cord.
If a human is cut into unequal left and right halves this is deemed what kind of plane? What is parallel to this plane?
A sagittal cut has been made if a human is divided into unequal left and right halves. The medial plane is parallel to this plane and is the creation of two equal L and R planes.
True or false. The coronal plane breaks the body up into anterior (Ventral) and posterior (Caudal) planes.
True. When a human is cut coronally, the body will be divided into ventral and caudal planes. (AKA anterior and posterior planes)
The "tail" region of a human is the _______ region
True or False. Contrary to traditional anatomists, neuroanatomists prefer the the anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) orientations to be flipped.
True. Neuroanatomists switch the traditional orientation of anterior and posterior. Thus, the nervous system is pictured as if a patient is face down on a table and you are looking head on, while a human in the anatomist view is looked at as if you were looking at the patient head on and he was lying face up on an operating table.
True or false. If a structure is distal, and another structure is medial, the distal structure is closer to the midline.
False. If a structure is closer to the midline then it is considered medial not distal. Thus the distal structure is farther from the midline.
The skin is composed of three layers superficial, intermediate and deep fascia. What layer of the skin are the cutaneous nerves and veins located? Does this layer have much collagen? If not or if so, is it dense or loose connective tissue?
The superficial fascia houses the cutaneous nerves and veins. It does not contain much collagen so since there are minimal fibers and lots of cells the superficial fascia of skin is considered loose connective tissue.
In women, lots of superficial fascia is found on the gluteal, breast and hip area. If it is found on the neck, shoulders and back as well what is lone missin area superficial fascia is also found on men?
The stomach of men is a common area of an aggregate amount of superficial fascia.
What is the proper order of the fascia of a human starting from the innermost part of a human's skin?
Deep, intermediate, and superficial are the correct order of the fascia as one proceeds from the innermost part of the skin outward.
Is the superficial fascia a barrier to fluid movement? What about the deep fascia?
The superficial fascia is not a barrier to fluid movement. Fluids can move freely through the superficial fascia. The deep fascia is a barrier to fluid movement. For example, since the deep fascia compartmentalizes muscles, a swelling will compartmentalize into anterior and posterior areas of swelling. This can happen if a woman wears high heels.
Dr. Kerry noted an example of a TB infection in cows. The swelling was seen in the thigh area however, the actual infection was upstream in the suez muscle. In which layer of the skin was the infection present?
The deep fascia due to its impermeability and its ability to compartmentalize muscle.
The term trochanter is greek term. What does it mean. Hint: think about the site of attachment for the gluteus medias.
The greek term trochanter means to run.
Do infants have a distinguished mastoid process? What role does this play in how a mother should care for her infant?
No, infants do not have a distinguished mastoid process because there has not been any stress put on the bone by developed muscles. A mother should be careful and be sure to support and infants head.
Dr. Kerry noted an example of an extreme amount of resorption in a child's mandible? How was this caused?
A child's mandible will appear depressed due to the irregular force that is exerted on it. The child's mandible had resorbed due to the position that he laid in (thumbs on his mandible) as he watched TV for four hours at a time.
The radius and the ulna are held together by deep fascia. What type of joint is this? Synovial, Fibrous, or Cartilagenous?
The joint between the radius and the ulna is considered a fibrous joint. This is because deep fascia holds the articulating surfaces of the radius and ulna together.
Traditionally, the thickening of a joint capsule of a synovial joint is considered a LIGAMENT. What structure on the human body (specifically the lower extremity) is ligament not formed by the thickening of the fibrous joint capsule that is superficial to the synovial membrane?
The ACL or anterior cruciate ligament of the knee is not considered to be a thickening of the fibrous jointcapsule.
If one of the functions of skeletal muscle is to move joints. What are the other two functions?
The other two functions of skeletal muscle are to provide body heat and stabilize joints.
The deltoid is connected to the acromion which is the pointed part in the superior region of the shoulder. If flexion is performed what direction has it moved?
If flexion of the deltoid has occurred then it has been moved anteriorly. Meanwhile if it was extended then it was moved posteriorly, while if it was moved laterally then it was abducted.
In anatomy what muscles are we supposed to consider in a movement?
Only the muscles that cross a joint
If a synergist is a muscle that performs the same function as another muscle what is a muscle that performs an opposing function?
An antagonist is a muscle that performs an opposing function to another muscle.
After running. A runner places his hands on his hips. Why does he do this?
He puts his hands on his hips because he is stabilizing the other muscles other than the muscles to allow for the intercostal muscles help the lungs expel more air.
If a patient comes in after a procedure and is only able to lift one of the arms in the air while the other operates just fine, is this a nerve issue or an infection that is attacking the CNS?
If a person has an asymmetric condition like this, more than likely it is nerve issue. For example, remember the carpet carrier gentleman that Dr. Kerry pointed out in class.
If a patient has a condition like this one. Is it caused by a muscle disease or an issue with a nerve?
If a patient's condition demonstrates this amount of symmetry then it is likely an issue with the CNS. In this case the man had a muscular disease.
The roots, spinal nerves, rami, peripheral nerves, and ganglia are found in the CNS or PNS?
In class Dr. Kerry used the Hydra as an example to demonstrate that a person needs four types of nerves to survive. What are they?
1. Visceral sensory (body detects its low on energy)
2. Somatic motor (body grabs food)
3. Somatic sensory (body feels food)
4. Visceral motor (body digests food)
Somatic and Visceral terms to describe where in the body structures are. What are located internally most of the time?
Visceral endings are located within the body. An exception are hair follicles which contain erector pilli which is a visceral ending near the surface of the body.
The cell bodies of the efferent motor neurons are located in the....CNS or PNS?
Central Nervous System
The cell bodies of the afferent sensory neurons are contained in the...CNS or PNS?
T or F. In the spinal cord, if viewed from a cross section, the cell bodies of the efferent visceral and somatic motor neurons are not segregated
False. In a half cross section the cell bodies of visceral and somatic neurons are segregated into different regions of the spinal cord.
The kidney would be innervated by visceral of somatic motor neurons?
The diaphragm would be innervated by visceral or somatic motor neurons?
Because afferent motor neurons, both visceral and sensory are not separated, which of the two would be more able to localize an issue at the back of a person's throat like a canker sore?
A canker sore would be sensed by the somatic sensory afferent motor neurons because they are more localized than the visceral sensory afferent motor neurons. This is why it is easier to tell where a canker sore is exactly when it's on your lip but it's much more difficult to distinguish one on the back of your throat.
What is the name of the boundary in the throat that separates the area in which there are more somatic afferent sensory motor neurons than visceral afferent sensory motor neurons?
The palatoglossal arch is the boundary of the oral cavity in which the majority of the somatic afferent sensory motor neurons become visceral afferent sensory motor neurons. This boundary is formed during embryological development.
What type of motor neurons are considered the final cellular pathway for transmitting nervous system information from many CNS structures to skeletal muscle?
The lower motor neurons are the type of neurons that are considered the final cellular pathway for transmitting nervous system info from many CNS structures to skeletal muscle
What type of neuron, primary (sensory afferent or motor efferent) convey information from the periphery to the CNS?
Primary sensory afferent neurons conduct information from the periphery to the CNS
Astrocytes, which are part of the "supportive" cells of the nervous system function to do what in regards to preventing drug penetrance?
Astrocytes establish the blood-brain barrier and are located between the capillaries and the neurons.
Of the following "supportive" cells of the nervous system, which are not found in the CNS? Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, or Schwann cells?
The Schwann cells are not located in the CNS, the are found in the PNS. The three other types (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microgla are found in the PNS)
Satellite cells are similar to Schwann Cells which are supportive cells in the nervous system. What structure of the peripheral nervous system are they specifically found?
Satellite cells are found in the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system.
What are Schwann Cells derived from during development?
Schwann Cells are derived from neural crest cells during development.
Collectively three layers make up a connective tissue layer covering of the spinal arch. What is this layer called?
The connective tissue of the spinal arch is called the meninges. It is composed of three layers called the pia mater, dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
What layer of the three in the connective tissue surrounding the spinal arch, AKA the meninges, is known as the "intimate mother"?
The layer of the meninges that is known as the "intimate" mother is the Pia Mater. It is actually directly associated with the spinal cord itself and is the most subdural layer.
Dura mater is the most epidural layer of the meningal connective tissue layer that lines the spinal cord. What does the term dura mater mean in english and what layer of the fascia does it most closely resemble?
dura mater means tough mother in english. Deep fascia is similar to deep fascia in that it is protective and does not allow the diffusion of fluid past it.
Arachnoid mater translates to spider mother in english. Is it located subdurally or epidurally WRT the the dura mater? Also, what space is located subdurally and what is the function of this space (what does it store)?
The arachnoid mater is located subdurally to the dura mater. The space that is located subdurally is deemed the subarachnoid space which stores the CSF surrounding the spine.
It makes sense that the epidural space would be surrounding the meninges. What is this epidural space filled with?
The epidural space is filled with fat and veins.
There is a space that is only existent when a person is alive that exists between the Dura mater and the Arachnoid mater. What is this space called? (note: this space will not be present on the cadaver, the arachnoid mater will be on top of the pia mater of the spinal cord)
The space located between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater in the meninges covering the spinal arch is called the subdural space. (i.e. it is the space below the dura)
What are the name of the extensions of the arachnoid mater that are present in the subarachnoid space which extend all the way to the pia mater?
The extensions are called trabeculae which is similar to trabecular bone. Trab means beam or timber in latin
The spinal cord has three general functions. Two of them include the motor innervation, and the processing and relaying of signals from the neck, trunk and extremities. What is the third?
It serves to provide reflexes in the body which is a combination of both sensory and motor.
What part of the spinal cord typically stains darker, white or gray matter? Why?
White matter usually stains darker due to its lipid content that is present due to the presence of myelin (counterintuitive)
What tract in the white matter is know to have thin myelin and does not stain as well as traditional white matter? Lissauer's, Anterior, Posterior, or Lateral?
Lissauer's Tract does not stain as darkly, thus it contains minimal myelin.
The fascicular cunneatus is found only on the T4 vertebrae and up. fascicular stands for ribbon in latin. What does cunneatus stand for?
Cunneatus stands for wedge shaped. Also, the fascicular cunneatus is located closer to the posterior dorsal column and lissauer's tract in the spinal cord than the fasicular gracilus.
T or F. Columns are traditonally found within the gray matter of the spinal cord
False. Columns are found in the white matter.
T or F. The substantia gelatinosa is found in the gray matter and is also located in both the anterior and posterior dorsal horns.
False. The substantia gelatinosa is found in the gray matter but only in the posterior portion of the dorsal horn.
In the spinal cord the posterior column is divided into two sections the fasicular canneatus and the fasicular gracilis. Which of these regions is more medially oriented?
The fasicular gracilis is more medially oriented than the fasicular canneatus in the posterior column of the white matter of the spinal cord.
T or F. A primary sensory neuron is not pseudounipolar.
False. a primary sensory neuron is pseudunipolar.
Anatomy Exam I
Latin terms that have been used and defined by Dr. Kerry in lecture as well as other lecture material