Respiratory Disorders

  1. Pulmonary system consists of
    lungs, airways, chest wall, and pulmonary circulation
  2. Function of pulmonary system
    gas exchange
  3. Ventilation
    the mechanical movement of gas/air into and out of lungs
  4. Diffusion
    the movement of gases between air spaces in the lungs and bloodstream (capillaries)
  5. perfusion
    the movement of blood into and out of the capillary beds of the lungs to body organs/tissues
  6. nasopharynx & oropharynx
    lined with ciliated mucosa, warms, humidifies, and fiilters inspired air
  7. Larynx
    connects upper and lower airways
  8. trachea
    connects larynx to bronchi, bifurcates into right and lft main stem bronchi
  9. Bronchi
    Main airways that enter the lungs at the hila (roots of the lungs), right bronchi straighter allignment
  10. acinus
    respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
  11. alveoli & types
    • the primary gas exchange units
    • Type I this promotes gas exchange and provides structure
    • Type II secretes surfactant to decrease surface tension and stabilize alveoli
  12. pores of Kohn
    permit some air to pass through the septa from alveolus to alveolus promoting collateral ventilation and even distribution of air among the alveoli
  13. Tidal Volume
    Vt : the amount of air normally inspired with each breath (500 mL)
  14. Vital Capacity
    VC: the maximum amount of air an individual can expire after maximum inspiration
  15. FEV1
    Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second: the maximum amount of air an individual can forcefully expire in one second (healthy is 80-100%0
  16. inspiration muscles
    active diaphragm, external intercostals, sternocleidomastoid
  17. Expiration mechanics
    • Passive, alveolar surface tension causes alveoli to return to non expanded state, elastic recoil
    • active internal intercostal muscles, abdominal (coughing)
  18. Pleural Membrane
    • two layers of tissue surrounding lungs, creating pleural space with negative pressure
    • Parietal pleura: outermost layer
    • visceral pleura: innermost layer
  19. pneumothorax
    the collapse of all or part of a lung that occurs when air enters the pleural cavity. can enter from parietal or visceral pleura
  20. Pleural Effusion (4)
    • the presence of fluid in the pleural space
    • Transudative: watery
    • Exudative: WBC's, plasma proteins
    • Blood: hemothorax
    • Chyle: Chylothorax
  21. Empyema
    Pus in pleural space, infected pleural effusion
  22. Obstructive lung diseases
    diseases where more force is required to expire a given volume of air, or emptying of lungs is slowed or both. dyspnea and weezing
  23. cystic fibrosis
    genetic dysfunction resulting in thick dehydrated mucus, inability to clear airways, frequent infections, and bacterial colonization
  24. Asthma
    Hypersensitivity of the airways causing chronic inflammation with intermittent bronchoconstriction (type 1 hypersensitivities rx). Constriction, wheezing on exp, non productive cough, prolonged exp, tachycardia, tachypnea
  25. Acute Bronchitis
    Increased mucus secretion secondary to viral or bacterial infection, up to 6 weeks
  26. Chronic Bronchitis
    Hypersecretion of mucus and chronic productive cough at least 3 months per year for 2 years. Decreased alveolar ventilation: hypoxemia, hypercapnea, clubbing, cyanosis, bolycythemia, cor pulmonale (right ventricle failure)
  27. Emphysema
    abnormal, permanent enlargement of acini, destruction of alveolar walls, destruction of elastin resulting in coalescence of alveoli into blebs, change in lung tissues. Dypsneic, not cyanotic. Hypoventilation, polycythemia, and cor pulmonale late in course
  28. COPD
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: syndrom includes pathologic lung changes consistent with emphysema or chronic bronchitis and even asthma
    • 4th most common cause of death in us
    • s&s: dyspnea on exertion, chronic hypoventilation, over expanded lungs (barrell chest), expiratory effort (pursed lips), diminished muscle mass on thighs and legs
    • drive to breathe form low O2 not high CO2
  29. Restrictive lung diseases
    • there is decreased compliance of lung tissue, increased work for breathing (RDS), Results from changes in airways
    • s&s: dyspnea, increased resp rate, decreased tidal volume
  30. RDS
    • neonates: immature type II cells 50-70% survive, CLD common
    • Adult: secondary to lung injury, decreased surfactant production and release of inflammatory mediators
    • S&S: dyspnea, rapid shallow breathing, inspiratory crackles, respiratory alkalosis, hypoxemia
  31. Pneumoconiosis
    • any changes in the lungs caused by inhalation of inorganic dust particles. chronic inflammation with scarring, accumulation of debris at bifurcations of bronchi
    • s&s: cough, chronic sputum production, decreased lung volumes, dyspnea, weight loss, rapid shallow breathing
  32. Pulmonary Edema
    Fluid in alveoli (pneumonia)high levels of hydrostatic pressure increase capillary permeability fluid leaks into interstitial space and alveoli, provides better growth medium for bacteria and poor gas exchange.
  33. V/Q ratio abnormalities
    • Ventilation: air moving into and out of lungs
    • perfusion: blood passing through the pulmonary circulation to be oxygenated
    • normal ratio 0.8
    • apex v>q, base v<q middle v=q
  34. pneumonias
    • infection of lower resp tract
    • s&s: fever chills cough malaise pleural pain (sometimes dyspnea or hemoptysis) inspiratory crackles, dullness to percussion, egophony, xray
  35. pulmonary embolus (v/q disease)
    • occlusion of the pulmonary vasculature by an embolus
    • s&s: vary from chest pain tachycardia, tachypnea, anxiety to death
  36. Pulmonary cancers
    • fewer than 20% survive 5 years
    • fromt he epithelium of the respiratory tract
    • s&s: cough chest pain hemoptysis, dyspnea, localized wheezing
Card Set
Respiratory Disorders
Structure & function of pulmonary system. Alterations of pulmonary system