A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at onepoint in time is, by definition, using the ______ method.
D. cross-sectional design
Which of the following is an example of a longitudinal study?
B. observing three groups of children (ages 2, 6, and 12) for a two-week period
What relatively new field investigates the influence of genes and heredity on behavior?
C. behavioral genetics
When a researcher discusses the contributions of “nature” on development, she is referring to theeffects of your
Dizygotic twins are formed from one egg and two sperm.
Monozygotic twins ______________.
C. are genetically identical
Brittany and Abby Hensel are a type of twin referred to as___________.
The specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from thedeveloping baby is called the _________.
What are some of the common consequences to a child if the mother smoked while pregnant?
C. lower birth weight and short stature
The longest prenatal period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue todevelop and become functional is called_______________.
In the ______ reflex, the baby moves its head toward any light touch to its face.
Which sense is the most well developed at birth?
Which of the following statements about immunizations is true?
B. Immunizations are needed even if the disease has been eliminated.
Your little sister picks up objects, feels every part of them, and then puts them in her mouth. Whatstage of Jean Piaget's model of cognitive development does this behavior suggest?
A theory that looks at the way people deal with the information that comes in through the senses iscalled__________.
A. information-processing theory
Which of the following would a child in Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive developmentNOT be able to do?
C. see the world from someone else’s perspective
Vygotsky’s idea that children develop cognitively when someone else helps them by asking leadingquestions and providing examples is called
The first noticeable signs of language development in infants is
By about 12 months, most infants ______.
D) build a vocabulary of one-word phrases, or holophrases
Infants in different cultures and of different languages experience a different series of stages inlanguage development.
If an infant in Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation was unwilling to explore, became very upset bythe stranger, and demanded to be picked up by his mother but then kicked to get away, he wouldmost likely be classified as
Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He really doesn't like when newpeople pick him up and hold him and has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. Whattemperament does he exhibit?
Erikson’s theory of social development viewed the ages of 3 to 6, his third stage, as beingcharacterized by the major challenge of ______.
C) initiative versus guilt
According to Erikson, when children between the ages of 5 and 12 succeed at learning new skills,they develop a sense of _____________; and if they fail to develop new abilities, they feel_____________.
A) industry; inferior
_____theorists believe that gender identity is learned through direct reinforcement and observationallearning.
B) Social learning
Whereas _____ can be defined as the physical characteristics of being female or male, ________ isdefined as the psychological aspects of being feminine or masculine.
D) sex; gender
A child who develops her identity and organizes her behavior around a mental concept of “girl” isrelying on
D) a gender schema
The growth spurt for boys typically begins at age______.
Fifteen-year-old Todd is writing an impassioned novel about growing up in America. In his novel hedescribes his experiences in a way that portrays himself as unique and special, such that no one hasever thought such deep thoughts or experienced such ecstasy before. Todd’s writings most clearlyreflect ______.
D) the personal fable
Which of the following questions would an adolescent who has NOT reached Piaget’s stage offormal operations have trouble thinking about?
B) What if you had been born to different parents?
Jeremy is 17 years old. According to Erikson, his chief task will be acquiring a sense of ______.
The cessation of menstruation and ovulation is called ______.
All of the following are reasons why middle adults experience changes in memory EXCEPT _______.
C) hardening of the arteries
A young adult who is having difficulty trusting others is most likely still trying to resolve Erikson’s stage of
D) intimacy vs. isolation
Which of the following is an example of generativity?
A) becoming a mentor
The _______theory of aging suggests that unstable oxygen molecules cause damage to the structureof cells, increasing with age.
A) free radical
Which theory correctly explains why the aging process occurs?
A) No theory to date has thoroughly explained the aging process
Several weeks of diagnostic tests have revealed the cancer has spread throughout Barry's body. Hisphysician suggested that he "take care of important matters." Barry realizes his family's home needsrepairs, so he arranges to have that done right away. To relieve his family of the agony of planninghis funeral, he has made all the arrangements. Barry told his minister he has a good life and justwants to make sure he provides for his family after his death. This description fits the stage Kübler-Ross called_________.
the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during whicha young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet anindependent, self-supporting adult.
gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system ofmales.
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver.
parenting style that involves combining firm limits on behavior combined with love, warmth, affection, respect, and a willingness to listen.
parenting style that is rigid, demanding, controlling, uncompromising, and overly concerned with rules.
second stage of personality development in which the toddler strives for physical independence.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
consonant and vowel sounds representing the second stage of language development, usually occurring around 6 months of age
in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of a young child to focus on only one feature of an object while ignoring other, relevant features
the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory.
third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes, but is not yet capable of abstract thinking.
concrete operations stage
often called Siamese twins, occurring from an incomplete separation of the zygotic cells.
in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature.
variable of tactile sensation that was proposed by Harry Harlow to be an important component in the formation of attachment.
second level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by conforming to the society’s norms of behavior.
vowel-like sounds made by babies around 2 months of age representing the first stage of language development.
times during which some environmental influence can have an impact on the development of the infant.
research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time.
research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design, but also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years.
often called fraternal twins, occurring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.
referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait.
eighth and final stage of Erikson’s model of development in which the goal is to develop a sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets, the final completion of the ego.
ego integrity versus despair
the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes.
name for the developing organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilization.
the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
1902–1994. developmental psychologist trained in the methods of psychoanalysis who proposed a theory of personality development based on a series of emotional crises.
the union of the ovum and sperm.
the time from about 8 weeks until the birth of the child.
name for the developing organism from 8 weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby.
Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.
formal operations stage
the behavior associated with being male or female.
perception of one’s gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender.
the culture’s expectations for masculine or feminine behavior, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with being male or female in that culture.
theory of gender identity acquisition in which a child develops a mental pattern, or schema, for being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behavior around that schema.
gender schema theory
seventh stage of Erikson’s model of personality development in which the crisis involves providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work or developing a sense of stagnation.
generativity versus stagnation
first 2 weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining.
single word utterances seen universally in the stages of language development.
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception until death.
fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self.
identity versus role confusion
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.
fourth stage of personality development in which the adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem.
industry versus inferiority
third stage of personality development in which the preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence, and attempts to satisfy curiosity about the world.
initiative versus guilt
sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego.
an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self.
sixth stage of Erikson’s model of personality development in which an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one’s sense of self is developed.
intimacy versus isolation
in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action.
1896–1980 Swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a fourstage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations.
1927–1987 developmental psychologist known for his theory on the development of moral reasoning.
1896–1934 Russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development.
research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.
the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability.
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masss of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo.
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight.
the female sex cell, or egg.
parenting style in which the parent puts very few demands on the child for behavior.
permissive parenting style in which the parents seem to be too involved with their children, allowing them to act any way they wish.
permissive parenting style in which the parents are not involved with their children.
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm.
a trait or characteristic that is determined by more than one gene pair.
third level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the person’s behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided upon by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms.
first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior.
Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world.
the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak.
referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene.
process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.
a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events.
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment.
type of speech in words are left out of a sentence but the meaning of the sentence remains, such as “want cookie” to mean “I would like a cookie.”
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up.
any factor that can cause a birth defect.
first stage of personality development in which the infant’s basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care.
trust versus mistrust
Vygotsky’s concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a more skilled teacher.
zone of proximal
cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm.
In a ______ design, several different age-groups of participants are studied at one time.
Brandon has blue eyes, even though both his mother and father have brown eyes. What do we know about Brandon's parents?
a. At least one of his parents has a recessive blue eye color gene.
b. Each of his parents must have one recessive blue eye color gene.
c Each of his parents must have one dominant blue eye color d. Neither of his parents has a blue eye
b. Each of his parents must have one recessive blue eye color gene.
Which of the following is a disorder caused by having an extra chromosome?
A. Down syndrome
The fertilized egg cell is called a____________ .
Which of the following statements about Abby and Brittany Hensel is FALSE?
A. They could have been successfully separated.
The first two weeks of pregnancy are called the____ period.
Which of the following does NOT happen in the germinal period?
B. developing organs can be affected by toxins passing through the placenta
The period of pregnancy that contains the clearest examples of critical periods is the____ period.
Mental retardation and blindness are possible outcomes of the effects of______ on the developing baby.
Which sense is least functional at birth?
What is the first voluntary movement that allows an infant to get from one place to another?
B. rolling over
In which of Piaget's stages would a child be who has just developed object permanence?
Vygotsky defines _________ as the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with help.
A. zone of proximal development
Daddy go bye-bye" is an example of_____ .
B. telegraphic speech.
According to Thomas and Chess, a child who is very irregular in sleeping and eating, resists change, and is
negative and loud is labeled a(n)_____ child.
What kind of attachment, according to Ainsworth, is shown by a baby who explores the room, gets upset when
the mother leaves but is easily soothed, and is happy to see the mother when she returns?
Mothers who were abusive and/or neglectful were associated with the______ type of attachment.
In Erikson's _______ stage of psychosocial development, the child learns self-control and begins to feel more capable.
A. initiative versus guilt
The development of a person's sense of being male or female is called_____ .
a. gender role.
b. gender identity.
c. gender typing.
d. gender stereotyping
b. gender identity.
Which of the following is not a biological influence on gender?
B. exposure to playmates of a particular gender
In cultures, gender roles are seen as more traditional, whereas in_____ cultures they may be more nontraditional,
especially for women.
d. affluent; poor
C. collectivistic; individualistic
Studies have shown that ______ are more concerned about appropriate gender behavior in their children, particularly their____ children.
C. fathers; male
Alexsees his father hammering some nails into a loose board on their house. Later Alex takes his toy hammer and pretends to hammer in some imaginary nails. Of which theory of gender development would this be a good example?
A. social learning theory
Which of the following statements about adolescence is FALSE?
a. It begins with the onset of puberty.
b. It is a time during which the young person is no longer a child but is not yet an adult.
c. It ends when puberty is complete.
d. It is a time of preoccupation with one's own thoughts.
c. It ends when puberty is complete.
Which term refers to the feeling of being unique and protected?
a. formal operations
b. imaginary audience
c. personal fable
c. personal fable
According to Kohlberg, most adolescents are at the___________ morality.
According to Erikson, the task of the adolescent is to_____ .
C. find a consistent sense of self.
Which of the following issues typically creates a lot of conflict between most teens and their parents?
C. trivial issues of hair, clothing, and music choices
In which theory of aging do telomeres become the major means of aging cells?
A. cellular clock theory
In the ______ stage of reaction to death and dying, a person may promise to do everything the doctor says if the doctor will say that the person can live a little longer.
The period of five to ten years during which a woman's reproductive system begins to decline is called___ .
Which of the following has NOT been shown to help maintain a healthy level of cognitive functioning?
A. sedentary lifestyle
Today's worker may change careers as many as_____ times.
C. five to seven
According to Erikson, achieving true intimacy is difficult if one's _________ is not already established.
According to Baumrind, _____ parenting may lead to an abusive relationship.
B. permissive neglectful
In Erikson's last crisis, the life review is_____ .
B. looking back on the life one has lived.
A sense of completeness of one's ego, or identity, is called .
Differences between age-groups would cause the most serious problems for which developmental research method?
C. cross-sectional design
If a person has one gene for cystic fibrosis but does not have the disease, cystic fibrosis must be a________ disorder.
In ________ syndrome, the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is missing an X, resulting in short, infertile females.
Which of the following represents dizygotic twins?
A. Two eggs get fertilized by two different sperm.
The spongelike organ that provides nourishment for the growing baby and filters away waste products is called the__________ .
The critical period for pregnancy is the__________ .
C. embryonic period.
Mary's baby was born with a smaller than normal head, some facial malformations, and is mentally retarded. Mary most likely____________ during her early pregnancy.
A. drank alcohol
In the_________ reflex, the baby moves its head toward any light touch to its face.
Which of the newborn's senses is the most fully developed at birth?
At what age can the typical infant sit without support?
A. 6 months
By age 5, the brain is at ______ percent of its adult weight.
In which of Piaget's stages does the child become capable of understanding conservation?
c. formal operational
d. concrete operational
d. concrete operational
According to Vygotsky, giving a child help in the form of asking leading questions and providing examples is called___________ .
As children grow from the preschool years into middle childhood the big changes in the capacity of short-term memory are most likely due to an increase in the use of__________ .
B. control strategies.
Little Kashif held his empty cup up to his mother and said, "Milk!" His use of this word is labeled_________ .
A. a holophrase.
As an infant, Liz never liked change, but if you introduce new things gradually, she will eventually accept them without too much fuss. Liz is most likely_______ .
C. slow to warm up.
In the Strange Situation,________ babies were clinging, unwilling to explore, very upset when Mommy left the room, and demanded to be held but pushed her away at the same time when she returned.
In Erikson's crisis of_______ , children are developing a sense of competence and self-esteem.
C. industry versus inferiority
The culture's expectations for male and female behaviors are called _______.
B. gender roles.
What happened in the study of 25 genetic males born with ambiguous genitalia who were surgically altered to be females?
C. They preferred male games and toys, and most have openly declared themselves to be boys.
In gender schema theory, gender identity_______________ .
C. first forms as a mental concept of "boy" or "girl."
Samantha refuses to go to school because her chin has a "huge" pimple on it and she is afraid that everyone will laugh at
her and point. Samantha is a victim of_________ .
A. the imaginary audience.
Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development is_______________ .
C. identity versus role confusion.
Vision and hearing begin to decline in the_______________ .
A decline in testosterone in the forties is called_______________ .
The crisis of middle adulthood, according to Erikson, is_______________ .
C. generativity versus stagnation.
Rebellion in the teenage years is the most likely outcome of________________ parenting.
Damage caused by unstable molecule is the main idea of the ________ theory of aging.
b. cellular clock
c. free radical
c. free radical
According to Kubler-Ross, when bargaining fails,_______________ usually results.
Which of the following is NOT a risk associated with failing to have a child immunized?