What may heart function be impaired by? (5)
- 1. conduction system abnormalities
- 2. interference of blood supply to myocardium
- 3. structural abnormalities
- 4. arterial disorders
- 5. venous disorders
Multiple what usually predispose to heart dysfunction?
Tx of cardiovascular disorders frequently involves? (5)
- 1. dietary changes
- 2. exercise programs
- 3. cessation of cigarette smoking
- 4. drug therapy
- 5. surgery
What is arteriosclerosis? (2)
- 1. degeneration of small arteries with the loss of elasticity
- 2. development of thick, hard walls and narrow lumens
In arteriosclerosis, what can cause ischemia and possibly local necrosis?
The development of thick, hard walls and narrow lumens
In atherosclerosis, large arteries such as the aorta and the coronary and carotid arteries are obstructed by? (2)
- 1. cholesterol plaques
- 2. thrombi
Obstructions due to cholesterol plaques and thrombi (atherosclerosis) may be partial or complete, and what are common?
(atherosclerosis) What predispose patients to the development of atheromas (4)
- 1. genetic conditions
- 2. high cholesterol diet
- 3. evelvated serum LDL levels
- 4. elevated BP
What are atheromas? (4)
- PLAQUES consisting of:
- 1. lipids
- 2. cells
- 3. fibrin
- 4. cell debris
- OFTEN attached with thrombi
Angina pectoris attacks are precipitated when?
The demand for oxygen by the myocardium exceeds the supply
Angina pectoris chest pains are treated with?
What is MI?
What does MI result from?
total obstruction in the coronary artery
Because of the obstruction in the coronary artery, (MI) what does this lead to? (2)
- 1. tissue necrosis
- 2. loss of function
Continuing what and changes in the ECG are diagnostic for MI? (2)
- 1. chest pain
- 2. hypotension
What are a common cause of death after MI is diagnosed?
What may arrhythmias result from? (4)
- 1. MI
- systemic abnormalities:
- 2. electrolyte balance
- 3. infection
- 4. drug toxicity
What do arrhythmias include? (3)
- 1. abnormally slow/fat heart rates
- 2. intermitten additional heart contractions (extrasystoles)
- 3. missed contractions (heart block)
Depending on the cause, congestive heart failure may develop first in? (2)
- 1. left
- 2. right
- SIDE OF HEART
Congestive heart failure on either side of the heart causes?
- 1. systemic backup or congestion
- 2. pulmonary congestion
(congestive heart failure) cardiac output is reduced causing? (2) stimulating? (1)
- 1. fatigue
- 2. weakness
- 3. reninangiotensin mechanism
(congenitial heart defects) structural abnormalities mayh involve the heart valves such as?(1) the septae, such as? (2)
- 1. mitral stenosis
- 2. ventricular septal defect
- 3. proximal great vessels
What is the primary outcome to congenital heart defects?
decreased oxygen to all cells in the body
Cyanotic defects such as? (1) refer to congenital defects where? (1)
- 1. tetralogy of fallot
- 2. blood leaving the left ventrical consists of mixed oxygenated and unoxygenated blood, thereby delivering only small amounts of oxygen to parts of the body
Rheumatic fever is a systemic inflammation condition caused by?
an abnormal immune response to certain strains of hemolytic streptococcus
(Rheumatic fever) Inflammation causes scar tissue in the heart valves and myocardium leading to?
rheumatic heart disease
Infectious endocarditis causes destruction and permanent damage to? (2)
- 1. heart valves
- 2. chordae tendineae
(infectious endocarditis) individuals with heart defects or damage should take what before invasive procedures where bacteremia is a threat?
prophylactic antibacterial drugs
When paricarditis leads to a large volume of fluid in the percardial cavity, what happens?
- 1. filling of the heart is restricted
- 2. cardiac output is reduced
Essential or primary hypertension is what type of disease?
Essential hypertension is marked by persisitent elevation of blood pressure above?
What is the high and persistent blood pressure of essential hypertension related to?
increased systemic vasoconstriction
Is essential hypertension frequently asymptomatic?
If essential hypertension is not monitored or controlled it may cause permanent damge to the? (3)may lead to? (1)
- 1. kidneys
- 2. brain
- 3. retinas
- 4. may lead to congestive heart failure
Athersclerosis in the abdominal aorta or illiac arteries may cause ischemia in the feet and legs resulting in? (5)
- 1. fatigue
- 2. intermitten claudication
- 3. sensory impairment
- 4. ulcers
- 5. possibly grangrene and amputation
Aortic aneurysms are frequently what until they are very large or a rupture occurs?
Varicose veins cause? (3)
- 1. fatigue
- 2. swelling
- 3. possible ulcers in the skin
Pulmonary emboli are a greater risk with?
phlebothrombosis (usually a silent problem)
Pulmonary emboli are at less risk with thrombophelitis b/c?
inflammation i more apparent with the disease.
Circulatory shock may result from? (3) why?(1)
- 1. decreased blood volume
- 2. impaired cardiac function with reduced output
- 3. vasodilation
- 4. b/c it reduces blood flow and available oxygen to microcirculation
What are the compensation mechanisms for circulatory shock?
- 1. sympathetic nervous system
- 2. renin mechanism (increased secretion of ADH, aldosterone, and cortisol)
- 3. increased respirations
Decompensated shock develops (circulatory shock) with complications such as? (2)
- 1. organ failure
- 2. infections
Respiratory and/or metabolic acidosis often accompany?
Respiratory disorders may result from? (4)
- 1. airway obstructions
- 2. alveolar damage
- 3. reduced lung expansion
- 4. interference with pulmonary blood flow
What are helpful in diagnosing respiratory disorders? (4)
- 1. charateristic breathing patterns
- 2. type of cough
- 3. sputum
- 4. other manifestations
A cough producing purulent sputum is typical of?
a bacterial infection
Viruses cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including? (5)
- 1. common cold
- 2. laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)
- 3. influenza
- 4. bronchiolitis
- 5. primary atypical pneumonia
What is pneumonia?
impairs oxygen diffusion when exudate fills the aveoli or intersistial tissue in the lungs.
What is SARS?
Severe acute respiratory syndrome
SARS is an acute repiratory infection caused by?
a previously unknown virus
The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing in individuals with?
low host resistance
With tuberculosis, the amount of drug resistant bacteria?
What is the basis of the tubculin (Mantoux) test?
hypersensitivity reaction developing with primary infection and tubercle formation
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, affecting the exocrine glands, particularly the?
mucous glands of the lungs
What organs are also involved in cystic fibrosis? (3)
- 1. sweat glands
- 2. liver
- 3. pancreas
The lungs are a common site for secondary?
Aspiration of solids or liquids may cause? (3)
- 1. inflammation
- 2. laceration
- 3. direct obstruction of airways
Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when?
pharyngeal tissues collapse on expiration during sleep.
The pathophysiology of acute asthma is based on? (3)
- 1. airway obstruction related to bronchioconstriction
- 2. inflammation and edema
- 3. production of excessive, thick mucous
What is a potential complication of acute asthma?
COPD is characetrized by? (3)
- loss of elasticity & destruction of:
- 1. aveolar walls
- 2. septae
- 3. capillaries
COPD leads to? (3)
- 1. overinflation of the lungs
- 2. hypercapnia
- 3. hypoxia
chronic bronchitis is associated with constant irritation in the airways and infections that lead to?
What is a common complication of chronic bronchitis?
Restrictive disorders include those with chest wall dysfunction, such as? (2)
- 1. kyphosis
- 2. respiratory muscle paralysis
Restrictive disorders also are disorders causing pulmonary fibrosis and loss of compliance such as?
occupational pneumoconioses (silicosis)
Pulmonary edema refers to? (2)
- increased fluid in the aveoli reducing:
- 1. oxygen diffusion
- 2. lung expansion
Most pulmonary emboli arise from?
thrombi in leg veins.
Moderate sized emboli cause?
Large emboli cause?
What is ARDS?
adult respiratory distress syndrome
Atelectasis may affect all/part of the lung and causes of it include? (4)
- 1. airway obstruction
- 2. decreased ventilation
- 3. compression of the lung
- 4. increased surface tension in the aveoli
A large open pneumothorax impairs what (2) due to what? (1)
- 1. ventilation
- 2. circulation
- 3. mediastinal flutter
Flail chast injury causes?
- 1. paradoxic motion
- decreases oxygen concentration in:
- 2. alveolar air
- 3. the venous return
What causes a baby to have IRDS?
SARS occurs in people with what?
- 1. ischemia of lungs
- 2. inhalation of toxic materials
Respiratory distress syndrome makes what reduced because of fluid in the lungs? (2)
- 1. lung expansion
- 2. oxygen diffusion impaired
What is acute respiratory failure? (3)
- 1. deficit of oxygen
- 2. increase of carbon monoxide
- 3. or combo of both
Acute respiratory failure may occur with? (3)
- 1. acute chronic conditions (tension pneumothroax)
- 2. chronic disorders (emphysema)
- 3. chronic diseases complicated by a secondary acute problem (cystic fibrosis plus pneumonia)