Social & Emotional Dev.

  1. A subcategory of two fields of psychology, social psychology and developmental psychology
    Social Development
  2. is the study of the ways in which our thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the presence (real or imagined) of others
    Social Psychology
  3. is the study of the interaction between physical and psychological processes as the individual grows from conception throughout the lifespan
    Develpmental Psychology
  4. is the study of how individuals identify, express and react to their own and others’ emotions in various situations; how we learn to interpret and manage emotions over the lifespan
    Emotional Development
  5. holistic theory that the parts of any whole cannot exist and cannot be understood except in their relation to the whole
    Gestalt Approach
  6. There are five different developmental domains of children that all relate to each other. They are easily referred to as the SPICE of life
    • SPICE:
    • social
    • physical
    • intellectual
    • creative
    • emotional
  7. The Lower Brain Centers are those that are located
    beneth the cerebral cortex
  8. The lower brainstem structures include
    pons, reticular formation and cerebellum
  9. process of organ formation that takes place during first two prenatal months
  10. is associated with emotional expression, motivation, learning, and memory and is made of five primary components:
    Limbic System
  11. Five primary compenents of the Limbic system:
    • - Amygdala
    • - Hippocampus
    • - Septum
    • - Hypothalamus
    • - Thalamus
  12. Part of the Limbic System which expresses rage, anger, aggression, and fear behaviors
  13. Part of the Limbic System which expresses learning & memory and aids in reproductive behavior
  14. Part of the Limbic System which helps experience pleasure
    Septum (pleasure button)
  15. part of the Limbic System which is below thalamus; detects changes and imbalances in body systems. Also directs pituitary gland. Ex. temperature: cold-> shiver; hot-> sweat
  16. Part of the Limbic System which is above hypothalamus; two egg-shaped halves: Right &Left; relay station - routes messages to cerebral cortex for processing.
  17. Perspective that all development takes place according to a biological plan
    Biological Perspective
  18. Biological/ evolutionary perspective; behaviors are adaptive - they have survival value. Ex. Infant reflexes
    Ethological perspective
  19. development is unconscious; based on emotional experiences – primarily those early ones with parents. Psychic energy is an important concept
    Psychodynamic perspective (Freud)
  20. Freud's perspective that personality develops via interactions among three structures
    • 1) Id – instincts; our primary psychic energy source; emotional decisions
    • 2) Ego – deals with demands of reality; rational decisions
    • 3) Superego – moral branch of personality; our conscience
  21. Freud's five main stages of psychosexual development
    • - oral (0-18 months)
    • - anal (18 months - 3 1/2 years)
    • - phallic (3 1/2 years - 6 years)
    • - latency (6 years - puberty)
    • - genital (puberty – early adulthood)
  22. Erikson's pychosoocial stages-- eight stages across the lifesan which are crisis driven
    • a. Trust vs. mistrust – (0 - 1); expectation that world is good and safe place
    • b. Autonomy vs. shame – (1-3); realize their self will
    • c. Initiative vs. guilt - (preschool); sense of responsibility; accomplishment
    • d. Industry vs. inferiority – (elementary); mastering knowledge and intellectual skills; sense of competence
    • e. Identity vs. identity confusion - (adolescence); resolve many different identities
    • f. Intimacy vs. Isolation – (early adult); form intimate relationships
    • g. Generativity vs. stagnation – (mid adult); review what I produced; useful life?
    • h. Integrity vs. despair – (late adult); evaluate life as contributing or not
  23. Piaget's "cognitive map"
  24. Piaget: Modifying new incoming information to fit our schemas
  25. Piaget: Restructuring our schemas so that new information can fit in better
  26. Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Perspective: 4 stages
    • a. Sensorimotor – (birth – 2 years); coordinating sensory experiences; take in information using reflexes and motor movements
    • b. Preoperational – (2 – 7 years); represent the world with words, images, and drawings
    • c. Concrete Operational – (7 – 11 years); logical reasoning of concrete information; perform simple operations
    • d. Formal Operational – (11 – 15 years); think in abstract and logical terms; systematic problem solving
  27. The Perspective that states that it is the interaction between behavior, environment, and cognition that determines development; we adopt behavior of others we see; we model significant others’ behaviors
    Banura's Social Learning Perspective
  28. an experience that includes a subjective feeling, a cognitive interpretation, a physical reaction, and a behavioral expression
  29. Human emotions consist of four components:
    • 1. Cognitive reactions
    • 2. Affect
    • 3. Physiological reaction
    • 4. Behavioral response
  30. The evolutionary perspective states that emotions have three primary functions:
    • 1. Adaptation & Survival - Fear and disgust alert us to dangerand possible contamination, respectively
    • 2. Regulation - emotions affect how we perceive the world; recall memories
    • 3. Communication - relay feelings and needs to others
  31. According to Robert Plutchik (1980), there are eight primary human emotions that relate to adaptive behavior. It is believed that these are innate or develop early on due to their survival values. They are made from four pairs of opposites:
    • 1. Anger
    • 2. Fear
    • 3. Sadness
    • 4. Disgust
    • 5. Surprise
    • 6. anticipation
    • 7. trust
    • 8. Joy
  32. The theory that suggests that environmental stimuli trigger physiological responses from one's internal organs. (heart and lungs = heart rate & respiration increase).

    *so physiological reaction first, emotional reaction second
    James-Lange Theory (William James-Carl Lange)
  33. Theory of emotion that states that physiological and muscle changes are not the cause of emotion. Emotional experiences and physical changes occur simultaneously
    Thalamic theory/ Cannon-Bard (Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard)
  34. is a theory of emotion suggesting that human emotion has two components or factors: physiological arousal and cognition (a conscious understanding of that arousal)
    Schacter-Singer theory/ Two-factor theory of emotion
  35. pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions: facial expressions of emotion are not culturally determined, but universal across human cultures and thus biological in origin
    Paul Ekman
  36. Paul Ekman's six primary universal emotions:
    anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise
  37. view of emotional development argues that emotions are innate, are discrete from one another from a very early age and each emotion is believed to be packaged with a specific and distinctive set of bodily and facial reactions
    Differential Emotions Theory (DET): Carroll Izard
  38. was designed to assess the family’s overall emotional expressiveness. Participants are asked to rate emotional expressiveness in their family of origin
    Family Expressiveness Questionnaire (Amy Halberstadt (1986)
  39. FEQ represents a ________ dimension crossed by a _______ dimension
    affect dimension (positive, negative) crossed by a power dimension (dominant, submissive)
  40. Babies don't have just one type of cry, they have three:
    • 1. Basic Cry - rhythmic pattern of cries and brief rests; purpose = hunger alert
    • 2. Anger Cry - like basic but with excess air forced through the lungs; louder; purpose = express rage or exasperation
    • 3. Pain Cry - stimulated by high-intensity stimuli; sudden and loud crying; long initial cry with an extended period of breath holding (silence); whaling; purpose = alert of harm, pain, physical discomfort, fear
  41. There are two types of smiling:
    1. reflexive smile - birth to one month; not occur in response to stimuli; usually during sleep (REM)

    2. social smile - expressed around 2-3 months; responding to external stimuli; usually responding to a face; infants show preferences for other human faces Ex. Other babies
  42. learning to manage his or her emotions. This management ability is called
    emotional competence
  43. involves the skilful production of situation-appropriate emotional expressions
    Expressive confidence
  44. is the affects, behaviors, and cognitions that characterize a person across many situations; it is stable and resists major changes.
  45. According to Freud, our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings (which make up our personality) are governed by biological innate drives he called
  46. Operates on the pleasure principle – impulse to seek immediate gratification to reduce tension
  47. Operates on the reality principle – mediates demands of id with realities of world
  48. Operates on the idealistic principle – force that seeks to adhere standards of ethics and morality
  49. unconscious techniques applied to resolve conflict and reduce tension.
    Defense mechanisms
  50. There are eight human defense mechanisms we use to cope with stress
    • - repression
    • - sublimation
    • - denial
    • - rationalization
    • - fantasy
    • - projection
    • - regression
    • - displacement
Card Set
Social & Emotional Dev.
Midterm Flash cards, Ch1-Ch5