Lab Practical 2

  1. Examples of General Senses:
    • touch
    • temperature
    • pain
    • chemical
    • pressure detection
    • body position
  2. Examples of Special Senses:
    • gustation
    • olfaction
    • vision
    • audition
    • equilibrium
  3. each sensory neuron moniters a specific region called _____; the location of this stimulus is relayed to a certain area of the sensory cortex, this neural connection is call a ______
    • receptive field
    • labeled line
  4. Pattern of action potentials to relay nerve impulses and provide CNS with such info as intensity, duration, variation, and movement of the stimulus is known as ____
    sensory coding
  5. Give an example of the cerebral cortex's inability to distinguish between true and false sensations
    Eye rubbing and seeing light.
  6. When the body projects a sensation to another part of the body this is known as ______
    reffered pain
  7. describe and give an example of: Tonic receptors
    always active; pain receptors
  8. describe and give an example: Phasic receptors
    usually innactive unless stimulated; tactile receptors and other receptors for touch
  9. Definition/types of gen. receptor and what it does: Proprioceptors
    • Receptors for body position
    • two types:
    • -M. spindle receptors- tell brain about m. position
    • -Golgi tendon organs- tell brain about tendon position
  10. Definition/types of gen. receptor and what it does: Thermoreceptors
    sensors for changes in temp
  11. Definition/types of gen. receptor and what it does: Baroreceptors
    Pressure receptors regarding liquid and gas

    • lamellated corpuscles aka pacinian corpuscles
    • ruffini copruscles
  12. Definition/types of gen. receptor and what it does: Chemoreceptors
    sensors for chemical changes within the body
  13. Definition/types of gen. receptor and what it does: Mechanoreceptors
    Touch receptors

    • Tactile corpuscles aka meissner's corpuscles
    • Tactile or Merkel's disks
  14. Definition/types of gen. receptor and what it does: Nociceptors
    Pain receptors
  15. Image Upload 2
    Tactile corpuscle
  16. Image Upload 4
    lamellated corpuscle
  17. Describe the two point discrimination test
    way to measure the density of the receptor poulation in a certain region by gradually increasing the distance between points of a compass
  18. Elaborate on receptor adaptation
    the reduction in sensitivity to repeated stimulus.

    • peripheral- decline in response to stimuli at receptors
    • central- occurs in CNS
  19. Elaborate on olfactory receptors and olfactory glands:
    Olfactory receptors are located on epithelium of the nasal cavity. The olfactory glands are located deep to the receptors. More mucus in the nasal cavity means more difficulty of scent reaching the glands.
  20. Three types of taste buds: location and what stimulates them
    • -circumvallate papillae- located at the rear of the tongue, sensitive to bitter
    • -fungiform papillae- located in the middle of the tongue, sensitive to salty, sweet and sour
    • filaform papillae- tip of the tongue, sensitive to texture. no taste buds
  21. Describe a sty:
    when a ciliary gland is blocked and becomes inflamed
  22. explain conjuctivitus:
    inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by bacteria, dust, smoke, or air pollutants
  23. flow of tears:
    lacrimal ducts-medially across eyeball surface-lacrimal puncta-lacrimal canals-lacrimal sac-nasolacrimal duct drains into the nasal cavity.
  24. 3 internal divisions of the eye:
    • fibrous tunic
    • vascular tunic
    • neural tunic
  25. muscles that open and close the eyelids:
    • levator palpebrae superiorus raises the eyelid
    • orbicularis oculi muscle closes it
  26. Explain Glaucoma:
    intraocular pressure of the eye is elevated and damages the optic nerve due to blockage of the cleral venous sinus resulting in blindness
  27. Constrictor and dilator muscles of the iris:
    • Constrictor m.- when contracted means light intensity increased, shrink pupil
    • dilator m.- when contracted less light, enlarge pupil
  28. Image Upload 6
    • 1. lacrimal gland ducts
    • 2. superior rectus m.
    • 3. tendon of superior oblique m.
    • 4. lacrmial punctum
    • 5. lacrimal carnucle
    • 6. superior lacrimal canaliculus
    • 7. meial canthus
    • 8. inferior lacrimal canaliculus
    • 9. lacrimal sac
    • 10. nasolacrimal duct
    • 11. inferior oblique m.
    • 12. inferior rectus m.
    • 13. lower eyelid
    • 14. lateral canthus
    • 15. lacrimal gland
  29. Image Upload 8
    • 1. levator palpebrae superiois
    • 2. superior oblique m.
    • 3. superior rectus m.
    • 4. lateral rectus
    • 5. inferior rectus m.
    • 6. inferior oblique m.
    • 7. trochlea
    • 8. medial rectus
  30. Image Upload 10
  31. Image Upload 12
    • know:
    • choroid
    • rods and cones
    • bipolar celss
    • ganglion cells
  32. Rods vs cones:
    • rods- sensitive to low light and motion
    • cones- sensitive to bright light and color
  33. Describe the fovea:
    the area of sharpest vision, containing large density of cones
  34. Explain the blind spot:
    -optic disk; area of the retina lacking photoreceptors
  35. Explain visual acuity:
    aka sharpness of vision. tested with the snellen eye chart
  36. normal vision:
    emmetropic; visual acuity of 20/20
  37. nearsighted vision:
    myopic; can see close but not far. eye focuses image in front of the retina
  38. farsighted vision:
    hyperopic; can see distant but not close up. focuses an image behind the retina
  39. Explain astigmatism:
    reduction of sharpness of vision due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens
  40. Explain presbyopia:
    causes a form of farsightedness; when the lens loses its elasticity
  41. How vibrations move inward:
    • Sound wave
    • tympanic membrane
    • moves ossicles
    • vibrates perilymph at round window
    • pressure waves distort basilar membrane
    • cause hair cells to vibrate against tectorial membrane
    • info of region and intensity sent to CNS
  42. what is otitis media?
    immflamation of the middle ear
  43. Function of the auditory tube:
    equalizes pressure between the external air and the cavity of the middle ear
  44. Function of the semicircular canals:
    sense movement (acceleration and decceleration)
  45. sensory receptor for hearing:
  46. Image Upload 14
    • know:
    • this is a slide of the cochlea
    • -organ of corti
    • -vestibular duct
    • -tympanic duct
  47. two functions of the inner ear:
    balance and hearing
  48. Vertigo:
    aka motion sickness; when CNS recieves conflicting info
  49. receptor for dynamic equilibrium and what it responds to:
    crista in each semicircular duct; responds to head tilting
  50. receptor for static equilibrium and what it responds to:
    maculae; sense changes in body position relative to gravity
  51. Frequency:
    aka pitch; number of compressed regions that pass a given point in one second
  52. hertz:
    unit to measure the frequency of the waves
  53. amplitude:
    aka intensity of a frequency
  54. decibels:
    the height of a sound wave
  55. conduction deafness:
    damage to tympanic membrane or ossicles
  56. nerve deafness:
    damage to the cochlea or cochlear nerve from exposure to loud noise.
  57. Role of endorcrine glands:
    in response to stimuli, they produce hormones
  58. hormone:
    regulatory molecules that slowly change metabolic activities
  59. target cell:
    any cell that contain membrane repetors for specific hormones
  60. negative feedback:
    a stiumus causes a response that either reduces or removes the stimulus. ex- ac unit in a house. or insulin
  61. What does it produce; hypothalamus-
    ADH and oxytocin
  62. What does it produce; pituitary gland-
    • -Anterior lobe- ACTH, TSH, GH, FSH
    • -Posterior lobe- oxytocin and ADH
  63. What does it produce; pineal gland-
  64. What does it produce; parathyroid gland-
  65. What does it produce; pancreatic islets-
    insulin, glucagon
  66. Hyperthyroidism:
    thyroid gland produces too much T4 and T3; increase metabolic rate
  67. Parathyroid glands mostly comprised of:
    chief cells
  68. Three layers of Adrenal cortex:
    • Zona glomerulosa- outermost
    • Zona fasciculata
    • Zona reticularis- deepest
  69. function of glucagon:
    raises blood sugar concentration
  70. function of insulin:
    lowers blood sugar
  71. what cells compose most of the pancreas?
    acinar cells
  72. name the four types of endocrine cells housed by the islets of langerhans
    • alpha cells
    • beta cells
    • delta cells
    • F cells
  73. Type I vs Type II diabetes:
    • Type I- beta cells don't produce enough insulin
    • Type II- cells are not receptive to the insulin
  74. what do follicular cells of the thyroid produce?
    T3 and T4
  75. what do C cells of the thyroid produce?
  76. why is the pancreas known as a "double gland"?
    it performs both exocrine and endocrine functions. secretes digestive enzymes and produce hormones that regulate blood sugar metabolism.
  77. Image Upload 16
    Bottom left up and over

    • optic nerve
    • optic disk
    • ora serrata
    • ciliary body
    • biliary processes
    • lacrimal caruncle
    • lacrimal punctum
    • anterior cavity: posterior, anterior
    • cornea
    • iris
    • suspensory lig of lens
    • limbus
    • lateral canthus
    • sclera
    • choroid
    • retina
    • posterior cavity
    • fovea
  78. Image Upload 18
  79. Image Upload 20
    • adrenal gland
    • adrenal capsule
    • adrenal cortex
    • adrenal medulla
  80. Image Upload 22
    • 2. adrenal capsule
    • 3. adrenal cortex
    • 4. adrenal medulla
    • 5. zona glomerulosa
    • 6. zona fasciculata
    • 7. zona reticularis
  81. Image Upload 24
    pancreatic duct
Card Set
Lab Practical 2
General and special senses, anatomy and physiology of the eye and ear, and the endocrine system