1. 3 general groups of water-soluble vitamins
    energy-releasing; hematopoeitic/1-C transfer; antioxidant
  2. thiamine
    vitamin B1; water-soluble & energy-releasing; coenzyme function in metabolism of carbohydrates & branched-chain amino acids (conversion between pentoses and hexoses); deficiency -> beriberi & polyneuritis & Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome & loss of memory & eye movements
  3. riboflavin
    vitamin B2; water-soluble & energy-releasing; coenzyme functions in numerous redox reactions; deficiency -> cheilosis & angular stomatitis & dermatitis
  4. niacin
    water-soluble & energy-releasing; coenzyme/cosubstrate for H-transfer with numerous dehydrogenases; deficiency -> pellagra with diarrhea & dermatitis & dementia
  5. pyridoxine/pyridoxamine/pyridoxal
    vitamin B6; water-soluble & energy-releasing; coenzyme functions in metabolism of amino acids & glycogen & sphingoid bases; required for transamination of amino acids for oxidation & synthesis of certain neurotransmitters; deficiency -> seborrhea & glossitis & neuropathy
  6. biotin
    water-soluble & energy-releasing; coenzyme functions in bicarbonate-dependent carboxylations (OAA synthesis); deficiency -> fatigue & depression & nausea & dermatitis & muscular pains
  7. pantothenic acid
    water-soluble & energy-releasing; constituent of CoA; involved in citric acid cycle & fatty acid metabolism; deficiency -> fatigue & sleep disturbances & impaired coordination & nausea
  8. folacin/folic acid
    water-soluble & hematopoetic/1-C transfer; coenzyme functions in single-carbon transfers in metabolism of nucleic and amino acids; deficiency -> megaloblastic anemia & birth defects
  9. cyanocobalamin
    vitamin B12; water-soluble & hematopoetic/1-C transfer; coenzyme functions in metabolism of odd-numbered fatty acids and methyl transfers; deficiency -> pernicious anemia & neurological disorders & dementia
  10. vitamin C
    water-soluble & antioxidant; important in formation of carnitine & collagen; deficiency -> scurvy with petachiae & spongy/bleeding gums & poor wound healing
  11. vitamin A
    retinol/retinal; fat-soluble; important in visual pigments & cellular differentiation/proliferation; deficiency -> night blindness & xerophthalmia & keratomalacia; excess -> birth defects & vomiting & diplopia & alopecia & desquamation & bone abnormalities
  12. vitamin D
    cholicalciferol/ergocalciferol; fat-soluble; important in absorption of calcium into bones & teeth; deficiency -> rickets (kids) & osteomalacia (adults) & increased colon and breast cancer risk; excess -> nausea & vomiting & anorexia & diarrhea & weight loss & calcification of soft tissue (esp. kidney & heart)
  13. vitamin K
    phylloquinones/menaquinones; fat-soluble; important in formation of blood clotting proteins that bind calcium ions; deficiency -> hemorrhagic disease; excess relatively nontoxic but synthetic menadione can lead to jaundice
  14. vitamin E
    tocopherols/tocotrienols; fat-soluble; antioxidant for cell membrane & unsaturated lipids & LDL; deficiency -> anemia (preemies) & nerve/muscle degeneration; excess relatively nontoxic but may antagonize those on vitamin K therapy
  15. micronutrient
    substances necessary in small amounts; function to enhance catalytic diversity of enzymes & provide structural elements & sense light in vision & provide molecular signals
  16. vitamin
    an organic compound that occurs as a natural component of foods and must be supplied exogenously in small amounts to maintain growth & health & reproduction of an organism
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