Foundations of Biology

  1. Leads to production of male and female gametes
  2. The division of the cytoplam into two distint cells
    cytokekinesis "cell movement"
  3. Leads to the production of somatic "body belonging" cells
  4. A single long DNA that is wrapped in proteins in a highly organized manner.
  5. number and types of chromosomes present in an organism
  6. DNA copies in a replicated chromosome
  7. same type of chromosomes
  8. a section of DNA that influences one or more herditary traits in an individual
  9. the binding of two chromatids at a specialized region of the chromosome
  10. chromatids from the same chromosome
    sister chromatids
  11. Nondividing phase in mitosis, cell is either growing and preparing to divide or fulfilling its specialized function in a multicellular individual
  12. replication of genetic material is separated from the partitioning of chromosome copies during M phase, part of interphase
    Synethesis (S) phase
  13. describes the orderly sequence of events that starts with the formation of a eurkaryotic cell
    cell cycle
  14. number of distinct types of chromosomes
    haploid number
  15. the number of each type of chromosomes present
  16. organisms whose cells contain just one of each type of chromosomes
  17. Cells contain two versions of each type of chromosome
  18. Diploid cells have one _________ and one _______
    paternal chromosome and maternal chromosome
  19. organisms with three or more versions of each type of chromosome
  20. Phase that chromosomes condense into compact structures
  21. In this phase, animal centrosomes complete their migration to the opposite poles of the cell
  22. In this phase, the centromeres of the chromatids split
  23. In this phase, the nuclear envelope begins to form around each set of chromosomes
  24. cytokinesis begins with this in animal cells
    clevage furrow
  25. During ______, the diploid (2n) parent cell produces two haploid (n) daughter cells
    meiosis 1
  26. During _______, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and go to different daughter cells
    meosis 2
  27. Daughter cells become gametes through
  28. Phases of Meiosis 1:
    • Early prophase
    • Late prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase 1
    • Telophase 1
  29. Homolog pairs come together in a pairing
  30. structure that results from synasis, consisting of two homologs
  31. In this phase, Crossing over between homologous non-sister chromatids
    Late Prophase 1
  32. In this phase, paired homologs seperate and begin to migrate to opposite ends of the cell
    Anaphase 1 in Meiosis 1
  33. In this phase, the homologs finish migrating to the poles of the cell
    Telphase 1 in Meosis 1
  34. The end result of meiosis 1:
    one chromosome of each homologous pair distributed to a different daughter cell
  35. Phases of Meosis 2:
    • Prophase 2
    • Metaphase 2
    • Ananphase 2
    • Telophase 2
  36. In this phase, the spindle apparatus forms & one spindle fiber attaches to the cetromere of each sister chromatid
    Phrophase 2 of Meiosis 2
  37. In this phase, replicated chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate
    Matephase 2 of Meiosis 2
  38. In this phase, Sister chromatids seperate. The resulting daughter chromosomes begin moving to opposite sides of the cell
    Anaphase 2 of Meiosis 2
  39. In this phase, Chromosomes arrive at opposite sides of the cell. A nuclear envelope forms around each haploid set of chromosomes, and each cell undergoes cytokinesis
    Telaphase 2 of Meiosis 2
  40. Meiosis 2 results in _____ haploid cells, each with one type of chromosome
  41. Chromosomal segments are swapped between adjacent homologs
    crossing over
  42. Two pairs of non-sister chromatids are brought close together and are held there by a network of proteins
    synaptonemal complex
  43. At each point where crossing over occurs, the non-sister chromatids from each homolog get physically broken at the same point and ________________
    attach to each other
  44. Results in four gametes with a chromosome composition different from that of the parent cells, maternal and paternal chromosomes cross over during meiosis 1
    Independent shuffling
  45. If bothe homolog or both sister chromatids move to the same pole of the parent cell, the products of meosis will be abnormal, this error is
  46. In nondisjunction, two gametes will have an extra copy of a chromosome
  47. In nondisjunction, two gamates will lack that chromosome
  48. An example of trisomy, extra copy of chromosome 21
    Down Syndrome
  49. Typically do not survive to produce viable offspring
  50. XXY, developes in males
    Klinefelter syndrome
  51. karotype XXX
    Trisomy X
  52. Occurs in females, their karyotype is XO (they lack the second X)
    Turner Syndrome
Card Set
Foundations of Biology
The Cell life/Meiosis