ANTH 1102 Exam 2

  1. Microevoloution
    The change in allele frequency in a population overtime. The 4 forces that cause microevolution are natural selection, mutation, random genetic drift, and gene flow. It happens rapidly and it easy to observe in humans.
  2. Macroevolution
    the change or a species over time. It takes a REALLY long time to occur.
  3. Frequency
    The number of times a certain allele appears within a particular population. (think in terms of fractions)
  4. Example 1 of Natural Selection:
    Endler's Guppies
    The fish had a continuous variation in regards to the colorful spots. The more colorful males were able to reproduce more successfully, however they were the first to be eaten. The bland guppies did not reproduce well, however they were able to escape predators easily. The middle of the bell curve is were most of the guppies end up in an unaltered experiment. However, if you add more predators, you will have more bland guppies. If you remove predators, your guppies will be brightly colored.
  5. Example 2 of Natural Selection:
    Elephant Tusks
    There is a random mutation that allows elephants to be born without tusks. In Amboseli National Park, Kenya, almost all of the elephants have tusks because there is little to no poaching. However, in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, most elephants are born without tusks because the poachers generally kill the ones who do have tusks.
  6. Example 3 of Natural Selection:
    Problem with the amount of mosquitos that carried malaria in Africa caused concern for many scientists. Most mosquitoes are hit and rest (land on the walls after they drink blood) so scientists sprayed the walls with DDT. Mosquitoes are now hit and run and many of the people suffer from birth defects from the harmful chemicals of DDT.
  7. Sexual selection
    The species looks for the "sexy hats" when breeding (i.e. certain characteristics cause you to attract more mates)
  8. Differential fertility
    Are you altering the alleles with the new member of society?
  9. Differential Mortality
    Are you removing certain alleles from the population when some die?
  10. Phenotype
    The physical traits/outward appearance that is determined by genes, environment and plasticity.
  11. Genotype
    Your genetic make up that causes your phenotype.
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ANTH 1102 Exam 2
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