Zoology Lecture 9

  1. Cnidarians jsut saying
  2. Where are Cnidae secreted from? By which Cells?
    The golgi complex. of the Cnidocytes
  3. What are the three types of Cnidae
    • Nematocysts
    • Spirocysts
    • Ptychocysts
  4. Which part of the phylum do Nematocysts occur?
    Nematocysts occur throughout the phylum
  5. Where in the phylum are Spirocysts found?
  6. Where are Ptychocysts found in the phylum? what does this organism use them for?
    • Ptychocysts are found Anthozoan in the order of Ceriantharia.
    • They are used for burrowing by the Ceriantharia
  7. Know morphology of Nematocysts from lab manual Fig. 3.2 - just saying
  8. What three uses are Cnematocysts for Cnidaria
    • 1. Prey Capture
    • 2. Defence
    • 3. Locomotion
  9. What part of the body would we expect to find nematocysts
    Nematocysts are located epidermally
  10. Scyphozoansand anthozoanshave cnidocytesin some ____________ locations.
  11. Whats a cnidocil Where does it occur?
    Cnidocil is a sensory organ rellying on both physical stimuli as well as a chemical stimuli. it is ontop of the nematocyst out reaching.
  12. Whats an operculum
    operculum - the opeing to the nidil
  13. Whats a nematocyst
    Nematocyst is the capsule that holds the nidil
  14. What happens when a nidocyt is "used" how long does it take to regenerate a new one?
    a new one tkaes 48 hours to regenerate. the old one is gone and done.
  15. Discharge mechanism depends on ______ pressure changes
  16. Discharged nematocysts have a ___________ volume.
    Greater or lesser?
  17. Discharged nematocysts have a ______ osmotic pressure
  18. Once triggered, the membrane becomes more permeable to _____ and inward _____ flux causes a rapid ___-____ unfolding of the nematocyst.
    • H2O
    • H2O
    • inside-out
  19. Discharge influenced by factors including (2 factors) of the animal
    • 1. Temperature
    • 2. Physiological condition of the animal
  20. Typically requires two different stimuli to effect discharge. What are they?
    • 1. Mechanical stimulation of the cnidocil
    • 2. chemosensory stimulation
  21. Each cnidocytecan operate __________ of other cnidocytesand of the _ _.
    • independently
    • NS or Nervous System
  22. What is ment by independent effectors of nidocytes
    indepdent as in one nidocyte is nto dependent totally on antoher nidocyte to dishrage its stinger
  23. However _ _ can change the _______ of discharge
    • NS
    • threshold
  24. Batteries of cnidocytesare usually connected by nerves and, if one fires, the rest of that group requires _____ stimuli to discharge than the cells that fire first.
  25. About ___ cnidarianspecies from the free-living classes are toxic to humans, causing from mild to fatal reactions.
  26. However, three genera/species seem to pose highly significant health threats:
    • 1. Chironex fleckeri
    • 2. Carukia barnesi
    • 3. Physalia physalis
  27. Nematocysts contain a complex mixture of toxins including (1) catecholamines, (2) histamine, (3) hyaluronidase, (4) fibrinolysins, (5) kinins, (6) phospholipases, and (7) various hemolytic, cardiotoxic, and dermatonecrotictoxins. - just saying
  28. Portuguese ________________ (1) the larger Physaliaphysalis,which is found in the Atlantic Ocean
    (2) the smaller Physaliautriculus,which is found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
    –Three deaths reported in N. America in recent years.
    Fire corals, ___________ species (from last Lecture
    • man-of-war/bluebottle
    • Millepora
  29. Sea nettles Chrysaorasp. and Cyaneasp., Cyaneacapillata, thelion's mane jelly is more famous because of Sherlock Holmes’ “The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane” than for actually killing people. - just saying
  30. This class contains the most dangerous cnidarianto humans, the seawasp, Chironex _______.
  31. Chironex ________ is the only jellyfish for which we have an antivenom.
  32. The venom of C. barnesicontains a sodium channel modulator that is linked to increased catecholamine release, which explains the early hyperadrenergicstate demonstrated by victims. - jujst saying
  33. Anthozoansvs. humans - jsut saying
  34. The sea anemone Phyllodiscussemoni(night or wasp-sea anemone) located in the Western Pacific Ocean is reported to cause fulminantdermatitis and acute renal failure in humans. - jsutt saying
  35. Cnidarians are primarily _________ but ___________and mutualistic nutritional modes also occur throughout the phylum.
    • carnivorous
    • filter feeding
  36. Most adopt a prey capturing posture with __________ extended.
  37. Digestion is a combination of ________cellular and _____cellular processes.
    • extracellular
    • intra
  38. Gland cells release mostly ________ into the _______ that fragment the prey into a soupy mixture.
    • proteinaceous enzymes
    • gastrovascular cavity
  39. _________ cells taken up the material by phagocytosis and __________ and complete digestion ___cellularly.
    • Nutritive muscle
    • pinocytosis
    • intra
  40. Autoradiographicstudies show absorption occurs across the _________ membrane and that compounds are transported through the _____ at low rates.
    • epidermal
    • mesoglea
  41. Feeding by Polyorchismedusa•Fishnet posture - just saying
  42. What two protists do nidarians have a wide spread symbiotic relationship with?

    zoochlorellae(green algae).
  43. Protistslive in ________ in gastrodermal cells
  44. Protistssupply the host with ____, and ______________ compounds; protists have a protected, favourable environment with ___ and __________.
    • O2
    • organic carbon
    • CO2
    • inorganic nitrogen
  45. Cnidarians that carry endosymbiontsmay have a problem, an ___________
    excess of oxygen
  46. The animals produce large quantities of ____________ to defeat the evil oxygens
    antioxidants. superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase[CAT] and glutathione peroxidase[GPX]
  47. End lecture 9
Card Set
Zoology Lecture 9
Zoology Lecture 9