1. Microscale
    • horizontal: 1-100 meters
    • vertical: up to 100 meters
    • time: hours

    ex. field, building
  2. local
    • horizontal: 100 meters to 10 km
    • vertical: up to 1 km
    • time: 1 day

    ex. campus, forest, city/town
  3. mesoscale
    • horizontal: 10 km to 100 km
    • vertical: up to 6 km
    • time: 1-2 days

    ex. region, entire state
  4. synoptic
    • horizontal: 100km to 1000km
    • vertical: > 6km
    • time: 1-5+ days

    general circulation models
  5. experimental design
    What variables do you need to measure?

    What time period?

    what is the required accuracy and precision?
  6. accuracy
    amount of correctness
  7. precision
  8. 3 parts of instrument
    Sensing device, transducer, and transmission/readout device
  9. instrument location
    1. level ground, 10m X 7m, short irigated grass (or surface representative of general area). surrounded by fense.

    2. No steeply sloping ground nearby (no hollow)

    3. Away from trees, cars, buildings, parking lots, .etc (most important for precip. and wind)

    4. All instruments should be on same site.

    5. Area with little development

    6. If changes in instrumentation or site (keep old instruments/site running for one year)

    7. Inspect site/instruments once every 2 years
  10. metadata
    data about data (station history, calibration, schedules, maintenance schedule, changes in location)
  11. Measurement standard (primary standard)
    reference measurement - intended to define a quantity
  12. calibration factor
    establishes a relationship with measurement standard
  13. range
    difference of measurement
  14. Sensitivity
    change in response/change in stimulus
  15. Stability
    Ability to maintain accuracy over time
  16. drift
    Slow variation in accuracy over time
  17. response time
    Time interval between the instant of change in stimulus and the instant when the instrument responds to the change and becomes steady.
  18. true value
    The mean of long term measurements
  19. Systematic error
    follows distinct pattern
  20. random error
    • no apparent bias
    • in any direction/magnitude
  21. Standard Deviation
    spread of the data about the mean
  22. electron
    negatively changed
  23. protons
    positively charged
  24. neutrons
    neutrally charged
  25. electricity
    product of the movement of electrons
  26. voltage
    amount of electrical "pressure" available from source
  27. ampere
    measure of the amount of current
  28. DC
    current in one direction
  29. AC
    current varies with time
  30. resistance
    limits or controls the flow of electricity measured in ohms
  31. ohms law
  32. program table
    set of cmds that is entered into memory of DL
  33. Energy
    ability to work on matter
  34. heat
    energy transfer from one object to another
  35. conduction
    physical contact
  36. convection
    mass movement of fluid
  37. radiation
    EM waves
  38. wavelength
    measure from ridge to ridge
  39. amplitude
    measure of the trough
  40. Stefan-Boltzman Law
    E = σ * T^4
  41. Wien's Law
    • The higher the temp the shorter the λ of max radiant emission
    • λ = α / T
  42. SWR
    0.2-2.0 μm
  43. LWR
    4.0 to 25.0 μm
  44. Flux
    amount of energy passing through a area per unit time
  45. solar constant
    radiation flux through an area perpendicular to the top of the atmosphere
  46. reflection
    ex. clouds
  47. scattering
    ex. Rayleigh (blue) and Mae (white)
  48. Direct radiation (Qdir)
    SWR not reflected or scattered
  49. diffuse radiation (Qdif)
    SWR is reflected or scattered
  50. QT
  51. Radiometer
    measures Tdiff on a surface receiving radiation
  52. pyronometer
    measures Qdif, Qdir, and Qt
  53. thrmopile
    several hundred thermocouples
  54. Kirchoff's Law
    an object that is a good emitter at a particular wavelength is also a good absorber at that same wavelength.
  55. blackbody
    object that absorbs and emits all radiation
  56. Thermometer
    sensor that uses variation of physical properties of some substance according to thermal state
  57. temp sitting height
    1.5 meters
  58. 3 types of temp sensors
    • mechanical
    • electronic
    • passive/remote sensing
  59. soil (heat sink)
    during the daytime and summer energy moves away from the surface downward Qg+
  60. soil (heat source)
    night and winter energy moves toward the surface (upward) Qg-
  61. heat capacity
    amount of heat energy input / temp. change
  62. volume specific heat
    heat required to raise 1m^3 of substance 1 k
  63. Thermal diffusity
    ability of soil to diffuse heat
Card Set
test 1