science midterm 8th

  1. chemical bounding
    the attractive force that holds atoms together
  2. ionic bound
    a chemical bound in which electons are exchanged between atoms
  3. Crystal lattice
    An orderly, 3 dimensional structure produced by ions in an ionic compound
  4. Covalent bond
    a chemical bond in which electrons are shared between atoms
  5. Molecule
    a neutral group of atoms that are joined together by one or more covalent bonds
  6. Polar covalent bond
    a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally
  7. Non-polar covalent bond
    A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally
  8. Mineral
    A naturally occuring, inorganic solid wiht a specific chemical composiotn and a definite crystalline structure.
  9. 5 characteristics of Mineral
    • naturally occuring (not man-made)
    • Inorganic (was never alive)
    • Solid (fixed shape and volume)
    • Specific composition (unique chemical formula)
    • Definite crystalline structure(atioms are arranged in repeating patterns)
  10. How are minerals formed
    From elements in cooed magma and in solution
  11. What are the 8 elements most minerals are made from
    • O oxygen
    • Si silicon
    • Al aluminum
    • Fe Iron
    • Ca Calcium
    • Na Sodium
    • K Potassium
    • Mg Magnesium
  12. What is the metric conversion in order
    Kilo, hecto, deca, Meter/liter/gram, Deci, Centi, Milli
  13. How do you calculate Density
    • density= Mass/Volume
    • Mass= Density x volume
    • Volume=Mass/density
  14. Sublimation
    the process whereby a solid becomes a gas without experiencing a liquid phase (Dry ice)
  15. when energy is added to a substance it changes from a solid to a
  16. when energy is removed from a substance it changes from a gas to
    a solid
  17. melting/freezing point of water is
    0 Celsius
  18. the vaporization/condensation point of water is
    100 Celsius
  19. What are the three sub-atomic particles of atoms
    protons, Neutrons, electrons
  20. protons
    located in the nucleus of an atom they have a positive charge and a mass of 1 amu
  21. Neutrons
    located in the nucleus of atom no charge and a mass of 1 amu
  22. Electrons
    located in energy levels that orbit the nucleus. they have a negative charge and no mass
  23. Atoms in their most stable state have an how many Protons, neutrons and electrons
    they are equal
  24. what is the atomic number mean
    the number of protons the element contains
  25. atomic mass is
    the number of protons plus neutrons the element contains
  26. element
    a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
  27. Atom
    the smallest unit of an element that still has the properties of that element
  28. Compound
    a substance made up of atoms of more than one element bonded together
  29. Molecule
    the smallest unit of substance that still has all the properties of that substance
  30. chemical formula
    the symbols and numbers indicating the numbers of atoms contained in the basic unit of a substance
  31. What is in the Mineral groups
    • Silicates
    • Carbonates
    • Oxides
    • Native elements
  32. Silicates
    minerals containig Silicon and oxygen
  33. Carbonates
    Minerals containing Carbon and Oxygen
  34. Oxides
    Minerals containing oxygen and a metal
  35. Native elements
    Au, Ag, Al, Cu,Pb, Ni, Zn
  36. what do you use to identify minerals
    color, luster, texture,streak, hardness
  37. how reliable is color
    least reliable
  38. Luster
    Metallic or non-metallic
  39. Texture
    Earthy, lassy, greasy, rough
  40. Steak
    the color of a mineral when it is powdered
  41. Hardness
    1-10 on Moh's scale
  42. Specific gravity
    the ratio of the mass of a substance to an equal volume of water (equivalent to density)
  43. What are the two types of Igneous Rock
    • Intrusive
    • Extrusive
  44. Intrusive
    (magma) Molten rock that cools beneath Earth's surface
  45. Extrusive
    (lava) molten rock that cools above earth's surface
  46. what type of mineral crystals will form while cooling slower or faster
    • slow cooling: produces larger crystals
    • fast cooling: produces smaller crystals
  47. Felsic
    magma that is high in silica and light in color (granite)
  48. Mafic
    Magma that is high in Fe-Mg and dark in color (Basalt)
  49. Sedimentary rock
    rock formed from cemented layers of sediment
  50. what are the three steps to form sedimentary rock
    • Deposition
    • Lithification
    • Cementation
  51. Deposition
    when sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottoms of bodies of water
  52. Lithification
    when sediments are compacted from the weight of overlying material over time
  53. Cementation
    When mineral growth cements sediment grains together into solid rock
  54. 3 types of sedimentary rock
    • Clastic
    • chemical
    • organic
  55. Clastic
    formed from fragments of loose sediments
  56. Chemical dedimentary rock
    formed from mineral grains that fall out of solution as evaporites
  57. Organic sedimentary rock
    formed from the remains of living organisms
  58. metamorphic rock
    • rocks that form from other rocks throught the actions of heat and pressure
    • (sediment to shale to slate)
    • (shell fragments to limestone to marble)
  59. three types of metamorphism
    • regional
    • contact
    • hydrothermal
  60. Rock Cycle
    • -Magma crystallizes to form igneous rocks
    • -Igneous rocks may become metamorphic rocks through heat and pressure, broken down into sediments or melted back into magma
    • -Sediments undergo lithification and cementation to form sedimentary rocks
    • -Sedimentary rocks exposed to heat and pressure to for metamorphic rocks or broken back down into sediments
    • -Metamorphic rocks may be buried and melted back into magma or broken down into sediments
  61. crust
    • the outermost layer of the earth. compsed of solid rock
    • Oceanic crust 4-7 km thick
    • continetal crust 20-40 km thick
  62. Mantle
    • the layer of rock between the crust and core of the earth 2900km thick
    • 80% of earths volume
    • partially melted giving it a plastic like consistency
  63. core
    • center of the earth compsed of Iron and Nickel
    • Outer is molten metal 2250km thick
    • Inner is solid metal 1200 km thick
  64. Lithosphere
    The outer portion of the earth consisting of the crust and the upper mantle upon which the crust moves
  65. Asthenosphere
    the zone of the manle beneathe the lithosphere that consists of slowly flowing, partially melted rock
  66. Plate Tectonics
    lithosphere is composed of 7 large plates andseveral smaller ones that move relative to one another
  67. what are the 7 plates
    • North American plate
    • South American plate
    • Eurasian plate
    • African plate
    • Australian-Indian plate
    • Antarctic plate
    • Pacific plate
  68. Alfre Wegener
    geologist who proposed the theory of plate tectonics in 1912
  69. Pangea
    Wegner's name for the supercontinent that contained all of the land areas on Earth as a single continent befor it broke up
  70. Evidence for continental drift
    • continents fit together like a puzzle
    • fossils found match ones on the west coast of Africa and east coast of South America
    • mineral depsits
    • mountain ranges same age
    • glacial deposits in warm climates
    • coal deposits
  71. types of plate boundaries
    • divergent plate boundary- moving apart creates gap
    • convergent two plates come together
    • 1.collision boundry: creates a mountain range
    • 2. subduction boundry: continetal and oceanice plate collide or 2 oceanic plates collide creating a deep ocean trench

    transform fault: 2 lithospheric plates slide horizontally pat to create fault zone
  72. what type of waves do earthquakes generate
    • p
    • s
    • l
  73. p waves
    longitudinal waves travel the fastest parallel travels through any medium
  74. S waves
    transverse wave , travel slower that p, perpendicular only travels through solids
  75. L waves
    surface waves created by P and S waves, distorts the ground surface
  76. Richter scale
    measures the size or magnitude(P and S waves)
  77. Mercalli scale
    measures the intensity or damage(L wave)
  78. 3 types of faults
    normal, reverse,strick slip
  79. normal fault
    produced by a tension from divergent plates
  80. Reverse faults
    compression force by conversion plates
  81. Strike slip fault
    sgure force transform plate
  82. trinagulation
    Using 3 seismograph tracings to locate the epicenter of earth quake
Card Set
science midterm 8th
8th grade science midterm