tubules that receive urine from several renal tubules; eventually direct urine to the renal pelvis
nephrons filter plasma at glomerulus into bowmans space. permeable to water but not large plasma proteins. Capillary pressure, molecular size, and electrical charge affect filtration/permiability
a specialized region where distal tubule contacts afferent and efferent arterioles of its nephron.
specialized cells that stimulate the secretion fo the adrenal hormone aldosterone.
synthesizes renin and plays a major role in renal autoregulation and bp
part of the thick ascending limb of the nephron
senses plasma sodium concentration and passes the message to renin-secreting cells
feedback between distal tubules and glomerular capillaries that help maintain homeostasis of gfr, overall blood volume, electrolyte concentration, by changing the amount of urine, or isotonic hypotonic hypertonic
increased NaCl in distal tubule decreases GFR, and decreased NaCl increase GFR. it also changes diameter of afferent and efferent arterioles.
stimulates red blood cell proliferation in bone marrow in response to kidney hypoxia, injections available
atrial NAtriuretic peptide
Secreted from cardiocytes in right atrium. When right atrial blood pressure increases, ANP inhibits secretion of renin, inhibits angiotensin-induced secretion of aldosterone, relaxes smooth vascular muscle, and inhibits sodium and water absorption. .. this increases urine formation, thus decreases blood volume and pressure
needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphate by the intestines which is stimulated by the kidneys.
analyzes the composition of urine
Blood urea nitrogen/creatinine
Cr is a by product of muscle metabolism that is filtered out by the kidneys
BUN is the measure of levels of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea, that is secreted by liver and removed by kidneys
High ratios indicate decreased GFR/kidney funtion
volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time; a useful measure for approximating gfr
IVP Introvenous Pyelograms
Pictures of the KUB with radio opaque dye
polycystic kidney disease
cysts develop (fluid filled spaces from accumulation with obstruction) lead to chronic renal failur