1. Locomotor system allows movement of an animal- components include:
    • Bones/Osteology (as props)
    • Joints/Arthrology (allow movement between bones)
    • Muscles/Myology (produces movement between bones
  2. Flextion
    Folding limb
  3. Protraction
    Moving limb forwards
  4. Extension
    Stretching limb
  5. Retraction
    Moving limb backwards (or fixing limb and moving trunk forwards)
  6. Gait (walk, trot, canter, gallop)
    • sequence of limb movements
    • (4 beat/time, 2 beat/rime, 3 beat/time, 4 beat/time- respectively)
  7. Axial Skeleton
    Vertebral column
  8. Appendicular skeleton
  9. 4 types of bones
    • Flat (scapula/pelvis)
    • Long (humerus/femus)
    • Short (carpus/tarsus)
    • Sesamoid (patella- embedded in tendons)
  10. Rough surface areas on bone:
    • Rough surface for general muscle attachment
    • specific boney bumps provide site for attachment of important structures
  11. Periosteum (bone)
    • Covers outer surface of bone (except articular surfaces)
    • contains blood vessels and nerves- important for fracture healing
    • enters medullary cavity via nutrient foramen
    • endosteum
  12. Smooth surface areas of bone
    • passage of structures/tendons
    • articular surfaces: hyaline cartilage at weight bearing surfaces, resistant to deformation, NO blood vesses or nerves
  13. X-Ray bone qualities:
    • Bone is white (mineralization)
    • on a long bone (shaft/wall= cortex, medullary cavity=hollow centre, epiphysis=end, metaphysis=transition zone)
  14. Bone Growth?
    • Limb bones form from centres of ossification:
    • short and sesmoid bones: usually from one centre per bone
    • flat and long: more than one per bone
    • usually sites for important structures have separate centre
    • cartilage between centers appear black= physis/growth plate
  15. Young vs. mature animal bone growth:
    • young: open physes/growth plates, produce increase in bone length
    • mature: closed growth plates= physeal scars
    • *time of closure depends on contributuion of specific physis to limb length
    • *can estimate age from growth plate closure time
  16. Fractures in adult vs. young animal
    • Adult: shaft is weakest
    • Young: growth plate weakest (damage/separation), can cause premature closure of all or part of growth plate, subsequent problems depend on timing/location of injury
  17. Limb Directions/terminology
    • Proximal= top of limb
    • distal= bottom of limb
    • medial= towards median plane
    • lateral= away from median plane
    • cranial= towards animals head (dorsal once below carpus/tarsus)
    • caudal= towards animals tail (becomes palmar or plantar once below carpus or tarsus)
  18. forelimb terminology (shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, hand, toe)
    • Omo= shoulder
    • Brachium= arm (shoulder to elbow)
    • Antebrachium= forearm (elbow to carpus)
    • carpus= wrist
    • manus= hand (distal to carpus)
    • digit= toe
  19. Forelimb bones:
    Scapula, humerus, radius & ulna, carpus, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, distal phalanges
  20. Scapula:
    • Flat bone
    • important features: Body, neck, glenoid cavity
    • lateral surface: spine (supraspinous fossa, infraspinous fossa), acromion process
    • Glenoid cavity: articular surface/shoulder joint, concave, smooth surface
    • supraglenoid tubercle: attachment of biceps brachii muscle
    • Medial/costal surface: serated, rought bone- attachment of: serratus ventralis muscle (dorsal), subscapularis muscle (ventral)
  21. Cat Scapula (differences from dog)
    • More rounded cranial angle than dog
    • suprahamate process (proximal to acromion process)
  22. Scapula development and palpation:
    • Centres of ossification: body, supraglenoid tubercle (2)
    • (Problems: tendon of origin of biceps brachii muscle, physis weak point= avulsion)
    • Palpate: dorsal and cranial border, cranial angle, spine, acromion (shoulder joint)
    • caudal border is beneath muscle so not palpable
  23. Nervous System (breif overview)
    • Central nervous system: brain/skull, spinal cord/vertebral column
    • Peripheral nervous system: cranial nerves, spinal nerves
  24. Nervous System development:
    Somites in embryos: blocks of tissue, develop alongside spinal cord, group combines to form each forelimb, drag nerves, nerve supply therefore reflects origin
  25. Brachial plexus
    • Spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through intervertebral foramen paired left and right, C6, C7, C8, T1, T2- ventral branches enter brachial plexus
    • supply forelimb
    • motor= efferent fibres
    • sensory= afferent fibres

    spinal reflexes
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