Intro to Corrections - Test 2

  1. Boston boot-maker known as the first probation officer.
    John Augustus
  2. Facility operated under a joint agreement between two or more government units, with a jail board drawn from representatives of the participating jurisictions, and having varying authority over policy, budget, operations, and personnel.
    Regional Jail
  3. A drug that reduces the craving for heroin: it is used to spare addicts from painful withdrawl symptoms.
  4. A drug, that when combined with alcohol causes violent nausea it is used to control a persons drinking.
  5. Technique used to determine whether someone is using drugs.
  6. The return of a former correctional client to criminal behavior as mesured by new arrests or other problems with the law.
  7. A person whose use of illegal chemical substances disrupts normal living patterns to the extent that social problems develop, often leading to criminal behavior.
    Substance Abuse Offender
  8. An amount of money specified by a judge, to be posted as a condition for pretrial release to ensure the appearance of the accused in court.
  9. Any threat to security or to the safety of individuals that is so obvious and compelling that the need to counter it overrides the guarantees of the first amendment.
    Clear and Present Danger
  10. Constraints imposed on some probationers to force them to deal with significant problem or need, such as substance abuse.
    Treatment Conditions
  11. Constraints imposed on all probationers including reporting to the probation office, reporting any change of address, remaining employed and not leaving the jurisdiction without permission.
    Standard Conditions
  12. Constraints imposed on some probationers to increase the restrictiveness or painfulness of probation, including fines, community service, and restitution.
    Punitive Conditions
  13. The ability to influence a person's actions in a desired direction without restorting to force.
  14. The ability to force a person to do something he or she does not want to do.
  15. Descriptions of PSIs of the costs of the crime for the victim, including emotional and financial loss.
    Victim Impact Statements
  16. Specific sets of objective criteria, such as offense history, previous experiance in the justice system, and substance abuse patterns, applied to all inmates to determine an appropriate classification.
    Classification System
  17. Pretrial release because the judge believes the defendant's ties in the community are sufficiant enough to guarantee the defendant's apperance in court.
    Release on Recognizance (ROR)
  18. An alternative to adjudication in which the defendant agrees to conditions set by the prosecutor in exchange for withdrawl of charges.
    Pretrial Diversion
  19. An investigation and summary report of a convicted offender's background, which helps the judge decide on an appropriate sentence.
    Presentance Investigation (PSI)
  20. How many probationers are sentenced for felonies?
    51% (About Half)
  21. A model of justice that emphasizes reparation to the victim and the community approching crime from a problem-solving perspective and citizen involvement in crime prevention.
    Community Justice
  22. Means of ensuring a legitimate state intrest (such as security) that impose fewer limits to prisoner's rights than do alternative means of securing that end.
    Least Restrictive Methods
  23. The constitutional guarantee that no agent of instrumentality of governemtn will use any procedures other than those procedures prescribed by law to arrest, prosecute, try or punish any person.
    Procedural Due Process
  24. Any interest of the state that must take precedence over rights guaranteed by the first amendement.
    Compelling State Interest
  25. A practice under English common law where by a judge could suspend the imposition or execution of a senetence on condition to good behavior on the part of the offender.
    Judicial Reprieve
  26. A formally recorded obligation to perform some act (keep the peace, pay a debt, or appear in court when called) entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community, often on posting a sum of money as surety, which is forefitted by non perfromance.
  27. People who fail to appear for a cour date and have no legitimate reason.
  28. a "disturbed" person whose criminal behavior may be traced to diminished or otherwise abnormal capacity to think or reason, as a result of psychological or neurological disturbance.
    Mentally Ill Offender
  29. Facility where offenders such as pretrial releases and probation violaters attend day long intervention and treatment sessions.
    Day Reporting Centers
  30. Legal rules, usually set by an agency of the exectutive branch, designed to impement in detail the policies of that agency.
  31. A philosophy of reorienting the jail experience from being mostly punitive to being mostly rehabilitative.
    Therapeutic Justice
  32. A writ (Judicial order) asking a person holding another person to produce the prisoner and to give reasons to justify continued confinement.
    Habeas Corpus
  33. Intervention, in a dispute, by a third party to whom the parties in conflict submit there differences for resolution and whose decision (in the correctional setting) is binding on both parties.
  34. the release of a mental patient from a mental hospital and his or her return to the community.
  35. Due process & Equal Protection
    Fourteenth Amendment
  36. The constitutional guarantee that the law will be applied equally to all people, without reguard for such individual;s characteristics as gender, race, and religion.
    Equal Protection
  37. A public official who investigates complaints against government officials and recommends corrective mesures.
  38. A person who in paricular set of circumstances has violated the law but who is not given to criminal behavior under normal circumstances and is unlikely to repeat the offense.
    Situational Offender
  39. Freedom of speech and religion.
    First Amendment

    • Turner vs. Safely
    • Cruz vs. Beto
  40. Unreasonable Search & Seizures
    Fourth Amendment

    Bell vs. Wolfish
  41. A person whose limited mental development prevents adjustment to the rules of society.
    Mentally Handicapped Offender
  42. The aggregate of circumstances in a correctional facility that, when considered as a whole, may violate the protections guaranteed by the eight amendment, even though such guarantees are not violated by any single condition in the institution.
    Totalitly of conditions
  43. Responsibility for the provision of monetary or other compensation awarded to a plaintiff in civil action.
    Civil Liability
  44. Requires that a regulation provide a reasonable, rational method of advancing a legitimate institutonal goal.
    Rational Basis Test
  45. Community supervision technique ordinarily combined with home confinement, that uses electirc devices to maintain surveillance on offenders.
    Electric Monitoring
  46. A Judicial Policy of noninterferance concerning the internal administration of prisons.
    Hands-off Policy
  47. Which case ended the Hands-Off Policy
    Cooper vs. Pate
  48. Detention of an accused person in jail to protect the community from crimes the accused is considered likely to commit if set free pending trial.
    Preventive Detention
  49. An independent business-person who provides bail money for a fee, usually 5-10% of the total.
  50. A person who sees crime as a way to earn a living, who has numerous contacts with the Criminal Justice System over time, and who may view the criminal sanction as a way of life.
    Career Criminal
  51. An approach to probation that establishes goals for supervision and evaluates the effectiveness of metting those goals.
    Performance Based Supervision
  52. Cruel and Unusual Punishment
    Eighth Amendment
  53. Self contained living areas for 12- 15 inmates composed of individual cells for privacy and open areas for social interaction.
    Podular Unit (Pod)
  54. A facility authorized to hold people before court appearance for up to 48 hours.
  55. The probationers failure to abide by the rules and conditions of probation (specified by the judge) resulting in revocation of probation.
    Technical Violation
  56. A method of corretional supervision in which staff members have direct physical interaction with inmates throughout the day.
    Direct Supervision
  57. A person who has commited a sexual act prohibited by law such as rape, child molestation or prostitution, for economic, psychological or situational reasons.
    Sexual Offender
  58. What do we call Child Molesters
    • Pedophiles
  59. A person who serves a lengthy period in prison, such as 10 years or more before his or her first release.
    Long-Term Offender
  60. Precent of HIV and AIDS infected.
  61. Which case made it "cruel and unusual" to excecute an offender who became mentally ill while incarcerated
    Ford vs. Wainwright
  62. Two Functions of PSI.
    Investigative and Supervision
  63. Conditions of probation.
    Standard, Punitive, Treatment
  64. Main disadvantage of probation.
    Opportunity to Reoffend
  65. Time between arrest and trial for felonies
    6-12 months.
  66. Most commonly used legal action to challenge prison & jail conditions.
    Section 1983
  67. Amount jails in the US today.
Card Set
Intro to Corrections - Test 2
Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8