There are two types of studies used to assess the effects of exercise on physiological systems, what are they?
Cross-sectional studies, and b) Longitudinal studies.
Longitudinal studies are also known as _________________.
In terms of training the anaerobic energy systems, the most important factor is __________________________.
Application of the overload principle is carried out in interval training by manipulating what four factors?
1.Intensity of exercise
2.Duration of the work interval
3.Duration of the relief interval
4.The number of repetitions per session.
In addition to the four factors outlined in the lecture, what other factor discussed in the lecture is also known to play a role in the application of overload during interval training?
The type of recovery also plays a role.
In the lecture (lecture 6) four major methods for determining training intensity were discussed, what were these?
a) Use of blood lactates
b) heart rate
d) training pace (velocity).
During the first 5 to 8 seconds of maximal exercise the predominant source of energy is ____________________________.
During 1 to 2 seconds of maximal intensity exercise the predominant source of energy is ______________________.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
What should the minimum work to rest ratio be for the following energy systems? a) ATP/PC, b) glycolysis, and c) the aerobic system.
c) 1:1 or less.
When performing interval training which energy system(s) seem to be better served when employing a rest-relief (passive recovery)?
The ATP-PC and aerobic systems.
What type of recovery seems to be the method of choice when the goal is improve lactate tolerance?
Work-relief (also known as active recovery).
List as many of the metabolic adaptations to endurance training as you can remember from the specific slide in topic 6.
1. larger and more numerous mitochondria
2. increase in the quantity of aerobic enzymes
3. increase in the capacity to mobilise, deliver and oxidise lipid
4. increase glycogen storage
5. shift in the fibre-type characteristics to become more oxidative
6. selective hypertrophy of trained fibres (e.g. type I larger than type II in endurance athletes)
Larger and more numerous mitochondria
Increase in the quantity of aerobic enzymes
Increase in the capacity to mobilise, deliver and oxidise lipid
Increased glycogen storage
Shift in the fibre-type characteristics to become more oxidative
Selective hypertrophy of trained fibres (eg. Type I larger than Type II in
What substance facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria? (although not shown on the slides I mentioned this in relation to metabolic adaptations to endurance training).
With resistance training what fibre type conversion is known to occur?
Type IIB (or IIAB) (fast twitch fatiguable) to type IIA (fast twitch fatigue resistant) and eventually to type I (slow twitch)
What was taught in the lecture about the effect of interval training for 6 second bouts versus 30 second bouts with respect to creatine kinase (CK) and myokinase (MK) enzyme changes? Remember that training refers to chronic interval training (e.g. several months) versus an acute bout (i.e. one single session).
Both CK and MK show greater increases in activity following training involving 30 second bouts.
What is the effect on ATP and PCr stores after a training program?
They both increase after training
What is the effect of a specifically designed training program (ie. anaerobic) on the key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, phosphofructokinase (PFK)?
It increases in activity.
What are the four main ways for the body to lose
heat and which one is the most important during
4. Evaporation- sweating most important
Why is the level of humidity important in the risk of
1. Provides increased strain on the thermoregulatory system
2. Cutaneous vasodilation increases skin temp and therefore heat loss via sweating
3. Sets up competition for cardiac output between working muscles and skin
4. Limits capacity for work and increases HR for a given workload
5. Likely causes central fatigue (increased mental errors)
Differentiate between heat cramps, heat exhaustion
and heat stroke.
Decreased muscle blood flow is a mechanism by which body fluid deficit causes fatigue, what are the 3 components that are effected by a decreased muscle blood flow?
Decreased nutrient delivery (e.g. glycogen)
Decreased metabolite removal
Altered cellular metabolism
Exercising in the heat results in an increase in the contribution from which energy system?
What are the types of sports where you would lose the most water?
American football and Tennis
Why would someone playing tennis lose so much water? (from sweating)
because there is no wind within the arena to cool the body via convection... therefore the body continues to sweat in an attempt to cool the body
Which 5 factors influence fatigue (via fluid loss)?
For exercise lasting less than an hour, is it important to consume CHO as well as fluids?
Where is food and fluid ABSORBED?
the small intestine, NOT the stomach
The rate at which fluids leave the stomach and is absorbed into the body (gastric emptying) is affected by:
stomach volume (full is faster)
fluid/food consumption - just water is passed faster than something that is 5-10% CHO (higher than 10% too slow)
temperature (cold is best)
exercise intensity (above 70%VO2max= cut off blood flow to the stomach/small intestine)
why does gastric emptying slow during exercise higher than 70% VO2max?
blood flow to the stomach and small intestine is reduced, therefore gastric emptying is slower
what is the optimum CHO level for fluids, seen in gatoraid and poweraid?
Which would empty fastest into the small intestine? A solid meal or liquid meal?
A liquid meal
What are the 3 electrolytes found in sports drinks?
Sodium, Potassium and Chloride
What is the main role of body electrolytes?
To maintain electrical gradients across membranes vital for nerve transmission & Muscle contraction
What is hyPOnatraemia?
low plasma/ tissue Na+ levels
what is hyPERkalaemia
high plasma/tissue K+ levels
What causes hyponatremia?
due to excess water consumption, or poor water handling by excess ADH secretion
True or False, the most recent fluid guidelines suggest that fluid replacement should equal fluid loss
false, can cause hyponatraemia. Instead, drink to level of thirst
If exercise is less than 1 hr in duration, what are the best reccomendations of type of fluid intake?
cold water is best
If exercise is greater than 1 hr in duration, what are the best reccomendations of type of fluid intake?
~5% CHO + low concentration electrolyte (e.g. NaCl) drink
What 5 things effects Sweat Electrolytes?
Onset of Sweating
What is Fatigue?
Decrement in force or power output (physical)
What are the 4 multidisciplinary components of fatigue study?
The cardiovascular/anaerobic model of fatigue suggests exercise performance is effected by the capactiy of the cardiovascular system. what 3 things are effected by the cardiovascular system that relate to fatigue?
On average, humans turnover approximately how many L of fluid per day?
The turnover rate of daily water on average is 3L, what are the 2 main things that effect this?
Metabolic rate and Ambient conditions
Typically we sweat _____L/hr
True or false: Typically, fluid intake does not match weat rate.
Typically dehydration is not greater than ___%, unless exercise duration exceeds several hours.
An increase in core body temperature of 0.5ºC will result in an estimated body weight loss of ___% and an increase in core body temperature of 1ºC will result in a body weight loss of ___%
a) 2, 4
b) 1, 3
b) 0.5, 2
c) 1, 2
a) 2, 4
What are the 5 characteristics that effect body fluid deficit that may cause fatigue?
1. Event duration
4. Fluid Volume
5. Nutrient Content
Hyponatraemia and Hyperkalaermia are conditions that are both associated with long or short duration activities (not necessarily in heat)
Sweat contains approximately _____g NaCl / L sweat in unacclimatised individuals.
Sweat contains approximately _____g NaCl / L sweat in acclimatised individuals.
Heat acclimatisation that increases sweat rate takes approximately _____ days
Heat acclimatisation that decreases heart rate takes approximately ____ days
Heat acclimatisation that increases extracellular fluid and plasma volume takes approximately _________ days
A decrease in rectal temperature due to acclimatisation in the heat would take approximately how many days?
Would urine Na+ and Cl- increase or decrease with acclimatisation, and how many days would you expect this to take?
It decreases, in approximately 3-8 days
Would sweat Na+ and Cl- increase or decrease with acclimatisation, and how many days would you expect this to take?
decreases, within 5-10 days
What are the 5 metabolic adaptions that occur after anaerobic training targeting ATP-PC system
1. MK activity
2. ATP stores
3. Adenosine triphosphase activity
4. CPK activity
5. PC stores
What is the main metabolic adaption that occurs after anaerobic training targeting anaerobic glycolytic system
An increase in PFK activity
What is a longitudinal study?
AKA training study, Follows the same individuals over time
What is a cross-sectional study?
Examining a large variety of different individuals, usually in a shorter amount of time
How does Interval training lets us do the same amount of work?
a) exercise at a higher intensity for a shorter amount of time
b) exercise at a low intensity over short duration
c) exercise at the same intensity over longer duration
d) higher intenisty work in shorter blocks of time
e) both c and d
both c and d
A certain amount of energy is needed to perfrom a quantitiy of work irrespective of whether the work is done _________ or _____________
Continuously or intermittently
Number of repetitions in a session and duration of all the work intervalls is known as the _______
Volume of work
Why is BLA especially useful during AEROBIC interval training?
Because during anaerobic training you expect it to be high anyway, so during AEROBIC interval training BLA gives an indicator of whether or not you are working above or below thresholds
BLA throughout history has been used in Australia in which sport?
HR can alter during a training session due to _________ and __________.
1.Training intensity, or
2. dehydration /cardiovascular drift
in 30s best case scenario, PC is only _____ restored in 30sec
When designing an interval training program for ATP-PCr energy system, the minimum W:R ratio is 1:3 but it can extend up to...?
Approximately how much time should be given to an athlete to recover between sets when training the ATP-PCr system via interval training methods?
Usually, the intensity of Lactic acid/short-term energy system interval training should be around __ -___% effort.
Adaptions to 24months of endurance training would see the greatest rise in:
D) Krebs cycle enzymes
During the relief phase of interval training, what would you expect to happen to VO2, RPE and HR compared to the work phase of the interval training?
They would drop
If the goal for that particular interval session is to stress the lactate system: then what type of relief should you definiately NOT use and why?
low passive or higher active,
low active recovery oxidizes lactate which defeats the purpose
When adapting to chronic endurance trainging; Capillarisation, Enhanced oxidative potential of FT fibres, VO2max and cross-sectional size of Slow twitch fibres usually ________ then_______
increase then plateau
Krebs cycle enzymes increase during chronic endurance training: why is this so important?
they're incolved in re-producing ATP
after detraining for at least 6 months (even after a 24month training program) where would you expect adaptions to be at?
back at baseline
Mitochondria need to increase in size or number so they can:
fit more enzymes in!
True or false: there is a detremental size that mitochondria can get to
True; if they're too bit there is a oxidative difusion issue
Type IIB can also be known as type ___ in humans
Myokinase (MK) is now known as :
key regulatory enzyme for glycolisis
The 3 Glycolytic system enzymes are:
PFK : phosphofructokinase
Phosphorylase: Glycogen Phosphorylase
LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase
The 2 main enzymes for ATP-PCr system:
Creatine Kinase and Myokinase
What are the 3 main aerobic enzymes?
malate dehydrogenase (both in krebs)
carnitine oalmityl transferase (is to do with fatty enzymes)