The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of ...
Anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of ...
In _____ situations, organizations learn the associations between two stimuli. _____ situations, organizations learn the association between a behavior and a consequence.
classical conditioning; operant conditioning
Any situation that involved learning ...
requires some relatively permanent change to occur.
Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. Salivation in this situation is the ...
Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank to eat whenever he turns on the aquiarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclinations to come to the top of the tank when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do to improve his training technique?
He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank.
Pavlov's dog salivated to the sound of a bell because ...
the bell had become associated with food.
Pavlov's dog salivates each time he hears bell. Now, however, after several trials of salivating to the bell and NO receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. What happened?
Extinction has occured.
Four month old baby Nino quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up baby Nino whenever he cries ...
is a positive reinforcer for crying.
Carol gives her dog, cutie pie, a treat each time cutie pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command.
Carol's dog, cutie pie, sits whenever she says "sit". Carold now wants to teach cutie pie a new trick. She wants to teach him to bark each time she says "speak", but whenever carol says "speak", cutie pie sits. The dog's behavior is an example of:
After extensive training, carol's dog, cutie pie, sits when says "speak" and barks when she says "sit". Initially, cutie pie sat down whenever Carold said either "speak" or "sit". Cutie pie is now demonstrating ...
Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective ...
Larry is sent to his room each time he hits his litte brother. After a few times of being sent to his room, Larry's misbehavior towards his little brother decreases. Sending Larry to his room is an example of :
Thorndike's law of effect is the basis of S-R theory. In other words, learning is a function of the consequences of ...
trial and error.
Skinner maintained that his research with pigeons demonstrated the usefulness of operant conditioning techniques ...
for behavioral control
Paul's wife complains that he doesn't put his dirty clothes in the clothes hamper. As a solution to his problem, Paul decides to train his pet German sheperd, bubba, to do the job for him. Whose work is most applicable to this situation?
Positive punishment _____ and negative reinforcers _____.
weakens behavior; strengthen behavior
Kim is surprised to find that her son's misbehavior actually increases when she yells at him. In operant terms,
yelling is serving to reinforce the misbehavior instead of pushing them.
What is NOT a process involved in observational learning?
Accoding to Tolman's views on purposive learning ...
you work hard all week, because you expect to get paid on Friday.
Who introduced the concept of cognitive maps to psychology?
One day, on the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you'd passed on several occassion. You are suprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway and realize that it could be used as an alternative route to and from work. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route and you remember the side street alternate route. You happily take this route home. This is an example of:
The phenomenon of latent learning provides support for ...
Tolman demonstrated that rats can learn to run a maxe correctly even though they were never reinforced for successfully running through it. This demonstrated the phenomenon of...
What is an example of drift?
A pig shoves an object on the ground instead of learning to carry it in his mouth.
Your roommate, a chemistry major, has developed a rat poison formula that he feels certain will rid NY City slums of their rat problem. The poison is completely safe for pets and children but is lethal to rats. Rats will get sick after eating only one packet; however, 5 or 6 poison packets must be ingested before the rats will die. Your roommate plans to start production of his poison packets and askd you to become a investor in his new venture. You declince because, as a psychology major, you know that ...
the rats will avoid the poison packets after getting sick on the first one.
Mary is a teacher in a inner city school that is considered "at-risk" because of low student achievement scores. She notices that most of the students at her school believe that academic ability or intelligence is a fixed, innate ability. What can Mary expect from students with this mindset?
They will exhibit learned helplessness in academically challenging situations.
One of your sorority sisters is in an abusive relationship. Her boyfriend physically abuses her which has resulted in several visits to the hospital emergency room. In talking with her, you discover that she also was abused by her father as a child. You now begin to understand why she puts up with an abusive boyfriend instead of leaving him. This is a classic example of ...
According to your text, the first step in a successful behavior modification program is to ...