-Experience of unexpected panic attack, Anxiety/Worry of another attack, Agoraphobia, symptoms persist for 1+ months.
-Affects 3.5% of pop., 2/3 are female, onset is acute and begin between 25-29.
Panic Disorder: Associated Features
-Nocturnal panic attacks: 60% panic during non-REM sleep
-Extreme avoidance, catastrophic misinterpretation of symptoms
-SSRI's, Benzos, any to target serotonergic, nonadrenergic GABA systems.
-Cognitive-behavior are highly effective
-No long term advantage for combined treatment
-Best long term outcome is Cognitive-Behavior alone.
Extreme and irrational fear of specific object or situation, markedly interferes w/ functioning, recognizes fears are irrational, but still avoids at all costs. Affects 11% of pop, most females, chronic, onset between 15-20.
Specific Phobias: Associated Features
Causes: Bio. and Evolutionary vulnerability, direct conditioning, observational learning, info. transmission.
Psychological Treatments: Cognitive-behavior therapy, structured and consistent graduated exposure.
Extreme and irrational shyness/fear, social/performance situations, marked interference w/functioning. Affects 13% of pop., females more, onset during adolescence w/peak at about 15.
Causes: Bio.& Evo. vulnerability. Direct conditioning, observational learning, info. transmission.
Medical Treatment: Tricyclic antidepressants, MAOI, SSRI.
Psych. Treatment: Exposure, rehearsal, role play in group--Highly effective.
Exposure to traumatic event, experience extreme fear, helplessness or horror, continue to re-experience (nightmares, flashbacks), avoidance of reminders, emotional numbing, interpersonal probs. common, marked interference in functioning, Only 1 month or more past trauma.
-Affects 7.8% of pop.
-Most common for sexual assault victims, Accident victims, or Combat.
PTSD Associated Features
Acute PTSD-1-3 months post trauma
Chronic PTSD-After 3 months post trauma
Delayed onset PTSD-After 6 months or more
Acute stress disorder-Immediately post trauma
Causes: Intensity of trauma, Uncontrolability and unpredictability, Extent of or lack of social support, Direct conditioning and observational learning
-Cognitive-behavioral treatment involving graduated or massed imaginal exposure (highly effective)
- Increase positive coping skills and social support