ABSITE ch 41 neurosurgery.txt

  1. Components of the circle of Willis
    Vertebrals (become basilar), posterior cerebrals, posterior communicating, anterior cerebrals, anterior communicating
  2. Efficient collateral circulation of brain
    Circle of willis
  3. Nerve injury with temporary loss of function
  4. Disruption of axon with preservation of axon sheath
  5. Disruption of axon and axon sheath, may need surgery
  6. Rate of nerve regeneration
  7. bare sections of nerves, allow salutatory conduction
    nodes of Ranvier
  8. hormone released in response to high plasma osmolarity, causing increased water absorption in collecting ducts
  9. Lack of ADH causing inc urine output, dec urine specific gravity, inc serum Na and osmolality
    Diabetes insipidus
  10. Treatment of Diabetes insipidus
    DDAVP, free water
  11. Inappropriate ADH release causing dec urine output, concentrated urine, dec serum Na and osmolality
  12. Treatment of SIADH
    Fluid restriction, diuresis
  13. Most common presentation of intracranial AVMs
  14. Treatment of intracranial AVMs
    Coil embolization then resection
  15. Pathology occurring most often near branch points in artery, present with bleeding, mass effect, seizures or infarcts
    Cerebral aneurysm
  16. Treatment of cerebral aneurysm
    Coil embolization then resection (if elective)
  17. Torn bridging veins causing bleeding
    Subdural hematoma
  18. Injury to middle meningeal artery; lucid interval followed by LOC
    Epidural hematoma
  19. Bleeding caused by AVMs and cerebral aneurysm
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  20. Symptoms of SAH
    Stiff neck, severe headache, photophobia
  21. Treatment of SAH
    Hypervolemia, calcium channel blockers
  22. Lobe most commonly affected by intracerebral hematomas
    Temporal lobe
  23. MAP-ICP
  24. Optimal CPP
  25. treatments of elevated ICP
    elevate HOB, sedation, paralytic, moderate hyperventilation, mannitol, craniectomy
  26. symptoms of inc ICP
    stupor, headache, nausea/vomiting, stiff neck
  27. signs of inc ICP
    HTN, HR lability, slow respirations (Cushing�s triad)
  28. Injury causing areflexia, flaccidity, anesthesia, and autonomic paralysis below the level of the lesion
    Complete cord transection
  29. Hypotension, normal or slow HR, warm extremities occurring with spinal cord injury above T5
    Spinal shock
  30. Treatment of spinal shock
  31. Bilateral loss of motor, pain and temperature sensation below level of lesion with preservation of position-vibratory sense and light touch
    Anterior spinal artery syndrome
  32. Loss of ipsilateral motor, contralateral pain, and temperature
    Brown-sequard syndrome, or incomplete cord transection
  33. Bilateral loss of motor, pain and temperature sensation in upper extremities with lower extremity sparing
    Central cord syndrome
  34. Pain and weakness in lower extremities due to compression of lumbar nerve roots
    Cauda equina syndrome
  35. Tract carrying pain and temp sensory neurons
    Spinothalamic tract
  36. Tract carrying motor neurons (2)
    Corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract
  37. Nerve roots carrying sensory fibers (typically afferent)
    Dorsal nerve roots
  38. Nerve roots carrying motor neuron fibers (typically efferent)
    Ventral nerve roots
  39. Symptoms of brain tumors
    Headache, seizures, progressive neuro defect, persistent vomiting
  40. Adult brain tumors: more supratentorial or infratentorial?
    2/3 supretentorial
  41. childhood brain tumors: more supratentorial or infratentorial?
    2/3 infratentorial
  42. most common primary brain tumor
  43. most common site of brain tumor metastasis
  44. most common brain tumor in children
  45. most common brain mets in children
  46. most common spine tumor
    neurofibroma (benign)
  47. intradural tumors: more often benign or malignant?
  48. Extradural tumors: more often benign or malignant?
  49. Complication seen in premature infants secondary to rupture of fragile vessels in germinal matrix
    Intraventricular hemorrhage
  50. Symptoms of intraventricular hemorrhage
    Bulging fontanelle, neurologic defects, dec BP, dec Hct
  51. Herniation of spinal cord and nerve roots through a defect in vertebra
  52. Area of brain for speech comprehension
    Wernicke�s area (temporal lobe)
  53. Area of brain for speech motor
    Broca�s area (posterior part of anterior lobe)
  54. Complication of XRT of pituitary adenoma
    Pituitary apoplexy
  55. Nerves that innervate diaphragm
    Cervical nerve roots 3-5
  56. Brain macrophages
    Microglial cells
  57. Cranial nerve for smell
    CN I (olfactory)
  58. Cranial nerve for sight
    CN II (optic)
  59. Cranial nerve for motor to eye
    CN III (oculomotor)
  60. Cranial nerve for superior oblique motor
    CN IV (trochlear)
  61. Cranial nerve for sensory to face and mastication muscles
    CN V (trigeminal)
  62. Cranial nerve for motor to lateral rectus
    CN VI (abducens)
  63. Cranial nerve for taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue and motor to face
    CN VII (facial)
  64. Cranial nerve for hearing
    CN VIII (vestibulocochlear)
  65. Cranial nerve for taste to posterior 1/3 of tongue and swallowing muscles
    CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
  66. Cranial nerve for many parasympathetic actions, including gut-related
    CN X (vagus)
  67. Cranial nerve for motor to trapezius and SCM
    CN XI (spinal accessory)
  68. Cranial nerve for motor to tongue
    CN XII (hypoglossal)
Card Set
ABSITE ch 41 neurosurgery.txt
ABSITE ch 41 neurosurgery