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What are the smallest units of the chemical elements
What are Atoms composed of?
What does the Nucleus contain?
Protons (+ charge).
Neutrons (no charge).
Where are the electrons (-charge) located?
Orbitals or shells outside nucleus.
How are the number of shells determined?
How many electrons can the first shell hold?
How many electrons can the second shecll contain?
Electrons in the more distant shells have....
What are the electrons in the outermost shell?
Valence elctgrons participate in...
chemical reactions and form bonds.
Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom is...
Different forms of the same atom are called
same atomic number, but different atomic mass.
Why do Isotopes have a different atomic mass?
contain different numbers of neutrons.
How are molecules formed?
by chemical bonding between balence electrons of atoms.
How are the number of bonds determined?
by number of electrons needed to complete outermost shell.
How many types of bonds are there?
When do Covalent Bonds Occur?
When atoms share valence electrons.
When are Covalent bonds electrons are shared equally?
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds.
What is an example of nonpolar covalent bonds?
Nonpolar covalent bonds tend to form...
What type of bonds are shared unequally?
Polar bonds contain what three chemicals?
Polar Bonds tend to form what type of molecules.
Polar bonds have what type of poles.
Positive + poles.
Negative - poles.
What is an example of polar bond?
Polar bonds pull more toward how many atoms?
When do Ionic Bonds form?
When valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Ionic bonds are weaker than what type of bond?
Weaker than covalent bonds.
When an atom loses an electron it becomes...
a Cation +
When an atom gains an electron it becomes an...?
Ionic bonds are formed by attraction of what
Postitive + charges and Negative - charges.
What is and example of an Ionic Bond?
NaCl - sodium chloride (table salt)
When is a Hydrogen Bond formed?
When a H forms a polar bond with another atom it takes on a slight + charge.
What are Hydrogen bonds attracted to?
Hydrogen bonds are attracted to any nearby negatively charged atoms.
What is created when Hydrogen bonds forms between adjacent H20
What are hydrogen bonds found in?
Acids release what in solution?
Acids are proton_________?
Bases lower what?
Lower H+ levels.
Bases are Proton_______?
pH scale is the symbol for what?
H+ concentration of a solution.
pH scale is from?
0 to 14
Pure H20 has a pH of what?
Acids have a pH of less than?
Bases have a pH of greater than?
Buffers are what?
Molecules that slow changes in pH.
How do buffers slow changes?
by either combining with or releasing H+ ions.
What is an example of buffers in blood?
What is the rxn of buffers in bicarbonate?
H20 + CO2 -> H2CO3 ->H+ HCO3.
HCO3 = Bicarbonate.
What direction does buffers pH go?
can go in either direction depending upon concetration of H+ ions
Blood pH normal range?
7.35 - 7.45
How is Blood pH maintained?
At what pH does acidosis begin?
less than 7.35 pH
What are the Organic Molecules
Carbon has how many electrons in the outer shell?
In body, carbons are linked to form...
Chains or rings.
Carbon & Hydrogen serve to form a
backbone to which more reactive functional groups are aded.
What are the six functional groups?
Hydroxyl group OH.
Carboxyl group COOH.
Sulfhydryl group SH.
Amino group NH2.
Phosphate group H2PO4.
Carbonyl groups forms?
Ketones & aldehydes.
Hydroxyl groups form?
Carboxyl group forms?
Organic acids include?
Lactic and acetic acids.
What do Stereoisomers contain?
same atoms arranged in same sequence.
How do stereoisomers differ.
differ in spatial orientation of a functional group.
Dextro-isomers are right handed.
Levo-isomers are Left handed.
Enzymes of all cells can use only...
Carbohydrates are organic molecules containing...?
Three types of carbohydrates include?
Carbohydrate ratio is?
Monosaccharides are simples sugars such as...
Disaccharides are formed by?
2 monosaccharides joined covalently.
The three most common disaccharides are?
Sucrose - Table sugar - (glucose + fructose).
Lactose - Milk Sugar - (glucose + galactose).
Maltose - Malt sugar - (2 glucoses)
What are Polysaccharides?
many monosaccharides linked together.
Starch & glycogen.
Starch & glycogen are
Polymers of thousands of glucoses.
Polysaccharides are what type of storage molecules?
Energy storage molecules.
How does dehydration Synthesis occur?
Occurs by splitting water out of 2 monosaccharides.
When a H+ and OH- are removed in Dehydration Synthesis what is produced?
Dehydration Synthesis is also known as?
What is the reverse of dehydration synetheis?
What is the function of carbohydrates?
cell membrane energy.
Provides energy gylcogen stores energy in the body.
Lipids are hydrophobic which means?
they are insoluablein polar solvents such as water.
Lipids consist primarily of
Hydrocarbon chains and rings.
Category of lipids include?
How are Triglycerides formed?
Condensation of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acides.
What are the two types of Triglycerides?
Triglycerides are saturated when?
hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids are joined by single covalent bonds.
Triglycerides are unsaturated when?
there are double bonds w/n hydrocarbon chains.
Hydrolysis of triglycerides releases free fatty acids which can be used for energy or convered in the liver to
Acidic high levels cause?
What occurs when ketone bodies in blood lower pH
Hydrolysis of triglycerides w/n adipose tissue releases?
Free Fatty acids.
Phospholipids are lipids that contain what group?
In Phospholipids, The Phosphate part is what?
Polar and Hydrophobic.
In Phospholipids, the lipid part is what?
Nonpolar and Hydrophillic.
Phospholipids aggregate into what in water?
Phospholipids act as what?
Surfactants by reducing surface tension.
A major component of the cell membrane is
Steriods are ?
Nonpolar and insoluble in water.
Steriods have what type of carbon ring?
6-carbon rings joined to a 5 carbon ring.
What is a precursor for steroid hormones.
What is a component of cell memebrane?
What are Prostaglins?
Fatty acids with cyclic hydrocarbon group.
Where are Prostaglandins produced?
Produced by and active in most tissues.
What is the function of Prostaglandins?
Prostaglandins have many regulatory functions.
Proteins are made of?
Long chains of amino acids.
How many types of amino acids can be used?
20 types of amino acids.
Amino acids contain what groups?
Amino group NH2 at one end.
Carboxyl group COOH at the other end.
Differences between amino acids are due to what differences?
differences in functional groups (R).
What are Peptides?
Short chain of amino acids.
How are Amino Acids linked?
How are Proteins formed?
by dehydration reaxtions.
less than 100 amino acids is called.
greater than 100 amino acids is called?
What are the four levels of Protein Structure?
What is the Primary Protein structure?
its sequence of amino acids.
What is the Secondary Protein Structure?
caused by weak H bonding of amino acids.
Secondary Protein structure results in what two shapes?
alpha helix - telephone cord.
beta pleated sheets shapes - folded.
Tertiary Protein structure is caused by what?
Bending and folding of polypeptide chains of produced 3-dimensional shape.
How are Tertiary Protein structures formed?
Tertiary Protein structure are formed and stabilied by weak bonds between functional groups.
Tertiary structures be denatured by what?
denatured by heat and pH
Quarternary Protein Structure forms when?
a number of polypeptide chains are covalently joined.
Glycoproteins contain what?
Lipoproteins contain what?
Hemoglobin contains what?
What are the functions of protein?
antibodies (immune system).
Receptors (cell membrane).
Carriers of molecules.
Nucleic acids include?
Nucleic acids are made of what?
Long chains of nucleotides.
Nucleotides consist of what?
Pyrimidines (1 ring).
What does DNA Contain?
Deoxyribose sugar is bonded how?
Covalently bonded to 1 to 4 bases?
2 strand of DNA twist to form what?
a Double helix.
Why do DNA twist to form a double helix?
Due to law of complementary base pairing.
What does adenine pair with?
What does Cytosine pair with?
What is Ribonucleic Acid?
What does RNA consist of?
RNA consist of long chain of nucleotides joined together by sugar-phosphate bonds.
Ribose sugar is bonded to what?
Guaninie or adenine.
Cytosine or uracil/Thymine.
RNA has what type of strand?
What are the three types of RNA?
Messenger RNA - mRNA.
Transfer RNA - tRNA.
Ribosome RNA - rRNA.
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