What is the region between the stifle and the tarsus?
Leg, crus (gaskin, shank)
What region contains the tarsus, metatarsus, and digits (human foot)?
List the regions of the pelvic limb from proximal to distal
Rump/ gluteal, hip, thigh, hamstring, popliteal, leg, pes
Of what does the hip bone (os coxae) consist?
Fused ilium, ischium, pubis (& acetabular) bones
What hip bone concavity articulates with the head of the femur?
What are the large openings in the floor of the pelvic girdle?
What is the junction of the right and left os coxae?
What is the palpable prominence of the lateral wing of the ilium?
What is its common name?
Tuber coxae/ point of the hip
What is the thick, caudal part of the ischium?
Ischiatic tuberosity/ ischial tuber
What medial process of the wing of the ilium is next to the sacrum?
Tuber sacrale/ sacral tuberosity
What is the caudal indentation between the ischiatic tuberosities?
What large prominence is lateral to the head of the femur?
Major (greater) trochanter of the femur
What is the prominence distal to the head of the femur (medial side)?
Minor (lesser) trochanter
The patella articulates with the ____surface of the femur
Trochlear (patellar surface of trochlea)
What depression on the head of the femur is for the round ligament?
What are the two large knuckle-like structures on the distal femur?
Medial and lateral condyles
What is the depression between the lateral condyle and the trochlea of the femur for the attachment of the long digital extensor muscle?
What are the medial and lateral elevation on the distal femur?
Medial and lateral epicondyles
What are the two sesamoid bones in the heads of the gastrocnemius?
Medial and lateral sesamoids (fabellae) of the gastrocnemius muscle
What is the large proximocranial process of the tibia where the patellar ligaments attach?
What part of the tibia articulates with the talus (tibial tarsal bone)?
Distal articular surface (cochlea)
Which is the more lateral bone of the crus?
List the bones of the hock and which rows they are in
Proximal row: talus and calcaneus (heel bone)
Middle row: central & 4th (2 story bone)
Distal row: numbered bones 1-4
What bone of the proximal row is located on the lateral side?
Calcaneus, also plantar side
What is another name for the tarsus?
What is the relatively immovable joint between the sacrum and ilium?
What is the sacrotuberous ligament?
Band of connective tissue from the tuber ischiaticum to sacrum in dog not in cat
What is the ligament from the fovea capitis to the acetabular fossa?
Ligament of the head of the femur (formerly round ligament of the femur)
What articulates to form the hip joint?
Acetabulum (os coxae) and head (femur)
What are the fibrocartilaginous discs between the condyles of the femur and tibia?
Medial and lateral menisci
How are the cruciate ligaments named?
For their attachment to the tibia
Which collateral ligament attaches to a meniscus?
List the sesamoid bones of the stifle
Patella, 2 sesamoids in the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle (fabellae) and sesamoid bone in the popliteal tendon
List the joints of the hock
Tibiotarsal, tarsocrural or talocrural joint
Proximal intertarsal joint
Distal intertarsal joint
In what domestic species is the exact configuration of the tarsus clinically most important?
Define the perineum
Body wall closing the pelvic outlet around the terminations of the digestive and urogenital tracts
What is the ischiorectal fossa?
Depression lateral to the anus filled with fat
What makes up the pelvic diaphragm?
Coccygeus and levator ani muscles
How do the pelvic diaphragm muscles relate to each other?
They don't- Coccygeus: more lateral; Levator ani: deep and caudal to coccygeus
What is the perineal body?
Fibrous and muscular tissue unititing the anal canal and vagina or bulb of penis
Where does the iliopsoas m. insert?
Lesser trochanter of the femur
What is the function of the iliopsoas m.?
Major flexor of the hip
What are extensors of the stifle and what innervates them?
Cranial thigh (quadriceps) muscles, femoral n.
What is the action and innervation of the medial thigh muscles?
Adduction, obturator n. (pectineus, gracilis, adductor)
List the "hamstrings" muscles from lateral to medial
Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranous
What are the insertions of the superficial digital flexor (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) in the dog's pelvic limb?
SDF: middle phalanges
DDF: distal phalanges
What are the actions of the crural muscles? Innervation?
Craniolateral: extensors of digits and flexor of the tarsus (called extensors)
-common fibular n.
Caudal: flexors of digits and extensors of the tarsus (called flexors)
- tibial n.
What composite tendon inserts on the calcaneus?
What are its main components?
Common calcanean tendon
-SDF and gastrocnemius
What do the terminal brances of the aorta mainly supply?
External iliacus: pelvic limbs; internal iliacus: pelvis and rump; median sacral/caudal: tail
What artery is a direct continuation of the external iliac artery out of the abdominal cavity to supply the pelvic limb?
What is the distal continuation of the femoral artery caudal to the stifle?
What is a digital artery on the side of the digit facing the axis?
One facing away from the axis?
Axial digital artery; abaxial digital artery
List the superficial veins of the pelvic limb
Medial and lateral saphenous veins
What is the palpable lymph nod of the pelvic limb? Where
Popliteal lymph node, caudal to the stifle (popliteal area)
LIst the main nerves of the pelvic limb and what they innervate
Gluteal nn.- gluteal muscles
Obturator: adductors of the thigh
Ischiatic: caudal thigh mm.
-Tibial: caudal crural muscles and sensory to plantar paw
-Common fibular: craniolateral crus and sensory to dorsal paw
Femoral: iliopsoas, quadriceps
-Saphenous: sartorius and sensory to medial skin (including medial stifle)
What nerve prevents lateral slipping?
What nerve allows extension of the rear limb digits?
What does the ischiatic n supply?
Caudal thigh mm. and by its brances the distal limb
What nerve is required to bear weight on the pelvic limb?
Femoral n. (L4-6) extends the stifle
What is the rule when talking about pelvic fracture?
If 1 fracture seen, look for 2 more (1 may be a luxation of the hip)
What should not be mistaken for an avulsion of the tibial tuberosity?
Growth plate/physis of the tibial tuberosity
How does the fovea capitis of the femur appear in radiographs?
Normal flattening of femoral head if positioned right/seen
How is a dog placed for hip dysplasia view?
Dordal recumbency, limbs pulled caudally and rotated slightly medially= femurs parallel, patellas centered in femoral trocholea.
Superimpose femurs and the ischiatic tuberosity
How must the pelvis be placed in hip dysplasia view? Why?
Level (no rotation or 1 acetabulum looks deep other, other shallow)
How do you check for rotation of the pelvis in hip dysplasia view?
Compare symmetry of obturator foramen and sacroiliac joints
What radiographic findings of hip dysplasia comes first to mind?
<50% of femoral head inside dorsal rim of acetabulum
What is required to evaluate coxofemoral luxation radiographically?
Requires 2 views to ascertain direction of luxation (craniodorsal most common)
In young dogs, what bone has a growth plate which looks like a fracture?
What does a skyline/ tangenital view of the stifle show?
Depth of trochlear groove, patella and femoropatellar joint space
On the mediolateral projection of the stifile what is the radiolucent (fat) density seen in the triangle formed by the femur, tibia and distal patellar ligament?
Subpatellar fat pad
What are the 4 sesamoid bones that should not be mistaken for fracture fragments in radiographs of the stifle joint?
Patella, 2 sesamoids of gastrocnemius muscle, and sesamoid in the popliteal tendon
How is the lateral side of the DP view of the tarsus easily identified?
4th tarsal/ 2 story bone: lateral
What is the radiographic landmark for the tarsus? What does it tell you?
Calcaneus, lateral and plantar sides
What tarsal surfaces are highlighted in a DLPMO view?
Dorsomedial and PL sides of tarsus
How does an animal with hypertrophic osteodystrophy present?
Young dog, swelling around the metaphyseal region of long bones of limbs, fever, and lameness
What are the classical radiographic signs of hypertrophic osteodystrophy?
Bone cuffing around the metaphyseal region and double physes
What is hypertrophic osteopathy?
Lamellar periosteal proliferation on long bones of extremities associated with space occupying lesion of thorax causing lameness and pain
What is seen radiographically in hypertrophic osteopathy?
Periosteal proliferation around the diaphyses of affected bones
What is the treatment for hypertrophic osteopathy?
Treating associated thoracic lesion usually results in regression of bony lesions
What is classically seen on radiographs of panosteitis (inflammation of long bones)?
Nodular opacities to complete opacification of medullary cavities, most prominent near the nutrient foramen. Resolution may leave a vacant look to the medullary cavity (dark) with a course trabecular pattern
How is a recurrent dislocating patella evaluated radiographically?
Skyline view of shallow femoral trochlear (patellar) groove
Anatomy- Pelvic Limb Q&A
Pelvic Limb up to Applied Anatomy/ Clinical (pgs. 130-134)