PSY 336 CH.8

  1. Emotional Development in Babies
    At birth, a baby may be described as a bundle of reflexes, but as development proceeds, specific emotions are expressed in forms that are recognizable to others.
  2. Newborns (Emotional Development in Babies)
    • Crying
    • Facial expressions of disgust in response to to sour taste
  3. After 1st Month (Emotional Development in Babies)
    Social Smiles
  4. After 2nd Month (Emotional Development in Babies)
    Smiles occur with gentle stroking
  5. After 3rd Month (Emotional Development in Babies)
    • Smile frequently in interaction with caregiver
    • Smile in response to same events as older children and adults
  6. Lewis, Alessandri, & Sullivan 1990 (Infants Mastering Skills)
    • Showed that smiling occurs when infants master skills
    • Babies placed in an infant seat with string attatched to their arms
    • Condition 1 had to pull string to turn on music for a short period
    • Condition 2 had music play for a short time independent of string pulling
    • Condition 1 infants of 2,4,6, and 8 months soon learned to start the music by pulling string and showed higher levels of interest and smiling than Condition 2 babies
  7. Hiatt, Campos, & Emde 1979 (Fruststraion and Playfulness)
    • Tested the relation of emotional expressions to specific elicitors by presenting 10-12 month-old babies with 6 eliciting conditions
    • Found:
    • Happy smiling occurs in response to playful games like peek-a-boo
    • Anger in response to frustration
  8. Scarr & Salapatek 1970 (Developmental Changes in Elicitation of Emotion)
    • Babies from 2 month-2 years old were exposed to strangers , a visual cliff, a jack-in-a-box, a moving toy dog, loud noises, and someone wearing a mask
    • As children age, they show more fearful avoidance of visual cliff, and more fear of strangers and masks
    • For fear of loud/sudden movements and unfamiliar toys, fear began at about 7 month, peaked at the end of the 1st year, then declined
  9. Developmental Changes in Elicitation of Emotion
    Preschoolers --> Fear of imaginary themes such as monsters and ghosts

    Early grade school --> Fears surrounding bodily injury and physical danger

    Adolescence --> Primary cause of fear is related to social concerns; increased negative emotion

    Grade 10 and up --> positivity increases; sexual love first comes to be important
  10. Imitations
    • Show within the first few hours of life
    • May have effect on infants' perceptions
  11. Habituation
    Allow infants to make discriminations between some emotional expressions
  12. Harlow (1959) Monkey Experiment
    • Removed baby monkeys from mothers, and offered them a choice between a surrogate mother made of terrycloth, the other of wire
    • In the first group a terrycloth mother provided no food, while a wire mother did
    • In the second group, a terrycloth mother provided food; the wire mother did not
    • Young monkeys clung to the terrycloth mother whether or not it provided them with food, and that the young monkeys chose the wire surrogate only when it provided food.
  13. Cohn & Tronick (1983)
    • Examined what happened when mothers showed no emotions to their babies
    • Babies videotaped when mothers cycled 3-minute intevals of "flat affect" with acting normally
    • Flat affect --> infants made more protests, more wary expressions, briefer positive expressions
    • Adult emotions do function to regulate interaction
    • Mutual Regulation Model
  14. Social Referencing Skills
    Skills using information from caregivers to alter their own actions
  15. Sorce et al. 1985 (Social Referencing Skills)
    • Exposed 1 year olds to visual cliff
    • 74% crossed cliff when mothers showed a happy facial expression
    • None crossed when mothers showed a fearful facial expression
    • Facial expressions alone can powerfully affect whether a child will cross the visual cliff
  16. Differentiation Between Self and Others (Development Empathy and Compassion)
    • 6 months --> show much clearer interest in others' emotions
    • 12-24 months -->children respond to anothers distressby comforting, bringing a parent, offering an object
    • 3 years --> ways they offer comfort are moreappropriate to the needs of other people
  17. Empathy and Compassion
    • Empathy is essential to prosocial behavior, kindness, caring, and justice
    • Compassion has been thought of as the very foundation of society
  18. Emotions in Play and Games
    • Play enables practice of social skills
    • Symbolic (pretend) play depends on the imagination, and also involves trying out roles, and the use of objects as props
    • A game is a model of some aspect of the social world, and we enter into it in order to take part in a particular kind of interaction
    • Games may be artificial but interpresonal engagement is real
  19. Behavioral vs. Mentalistic Ideas of Emotion
    • It has been argued that children under 4 are not capable of understanding the cause of others' emotions, so their ideas of emotions are more behavioral than mentalistic
    • Some evidence that 2-3 year old children may have mentalistic conceptions of emotions
    • By 3-4 years old, children give plausable reasonsfor experiencing emotions in which they make reference to the goal states (desires) of other people
    • By 4 years children become good at explaining people's actions in terms of these people's own mental statee, including desires and emotions
Card Set
PSY 336 CH.8