When and where did early Chinese civilization begin?
C. 2400 BCE around the Yellow (Huang He) River.
What type of agriculture did early Chinese civilization use? Name its characteristics as well as its societal impact.
- Garden Agriculture
- Used no tools (ex. the plow) or animals, only used hands
- Created a high population density (children were needed to do work [economic asset]), more food for Chinese because there were fewer animals to feed.
Through what years did the Shang Dynasty last?
C. 1500-1000 BCE
What was the capital of the Shang dynasty?
What type of towns populated the Shang Dynasty? Give characteristics of these towns.
They were charioteer camps that had two large roads that intersected in the middle of the town to allowed many charioteers to travel N, E, S, and W at a high rate of speed through the city. There were gates that held off invaders.
What were some innovations of the Shang Dynasty?
- Pictographic writing
- Bronze works of art
Name some family values of the Shang Dynasty.
The families were patriarchal (father ruled), both elders and ancestors were greatly respected, the emperor ruled over the heads of families.
Name some characteristics of the Zhou Dynasty.
- 7 Day week (they adopted it, they didn't create it)
- The government was centered around the Son of Heaven (the Emperor)
Into what dynasty was Confucius born? What problems plagued this era?
- Eastern Zhou dynasty
- It was a feudal society (one possessing an emperor and lords who operated under him) that was falling apart. The government was losing power and the lords were fighting and creating chaos.
Confucius was Shulianghe's son. What was unusual about his birth and his name?
He was Shulianghe's first healthy son. Shulianghe was seventy and his wife was 16. Confucius' name was originally Kong Qiu. However, when translated into Latin, it became Confucius.
What aspects of Confucius' childhood influenced his teachings?
- Poverty-His policy of helping people and having the government spend money on the impoverished
- Intelligence/hard work ethic-His belief that education was the route to becoming a better person and that all should be educated, regardless of wealth (this is why his school was open to people of all classes)
- Mother's devotion-Family is "golden" called Filial Piety
What was Confucius' first governmental position? Who granted it to him?
The governor of Lu appointed him as minister of justice. Apparently, his kindness made crime practically vanish.
What were Confucius' 5 relations?
- 1. Ruler/subject
- 2. Father/son
- 3. Husband/wife
- 4. Older/younger brothers
- 5. Friend/friend
Who formed Daoism? What were its major principals?
- The Dao guides all things, only humans fail to follow it. The natural order was highly important.
Explain briefly the ideals of I Ching and Yin Yang.
- I Ching: Practical and ethical problems were solved by throwing sacred coins and interpreting the results
- Yin/Yang: Two powers are the natural rhythms of life. Yin is cold and Yang is warm.
Who was the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty? What form of government did this dynasty use?
How did Shi Huangdi strengthen China in the Qin Dynasty?
He halted internal battles, defeated invaders, crushed resistance, doubled China's size, controlled noble families, murdered Confucian scholars to avoid criticism, and burned unnecesary books. His autocratic government had unlimited power.
Complete the sentence: LET'S GET DOWN TO BUSINESS...TO DEFEAT...THE HUNNNSSSSS
________ _____ _____ ___ _________ _____ _ ______ ___ ____?
DID THEY SEND ME DAUGHTERS, WHEN I ASKED FOR SONNNNNNSSSSSS
Describe some features of the Great Wall of China. Tell in what dynasty it was built and how it was built.
The wall was made of many pebbles surrounded by an outer layer of stone. There were watch towers at set intervals, and the wall stretched from the Yellow Sea to the Gobi Desert to protect from invaders.. The poor hated Shu Huangdi because 100,000 of then were forced to work on building the wall or be sentenced to death.
How did Shi Huangdi centralize the Qin Dynasty?
He built 4000+ miles of highway, set standards for law, writing, currency, weights, and measures. He increased farming by facilitating irrigation structures. Although trade blossomed because of these accomplishments, people were still unhappy with the oppression forced on them.
Why did the Qin Dynasty end? Who took over afterwards?
Huangdi's son was as oppressive as his father, but he wasn't as smart. Peasants rebelled and the Hans took over.
What was the silt found in the yellow river called?
Explain the difference between early spoken and written Chinese?
The spoken Chinese language was different throughout the whole empire. Written Chinese was different uniform and was used for communication. EX: Everyone recognizes 2+2=4. However, not everyone recognizes "dos y dos son cuatro".
How did the Zhou dynasty end?
Zhou rule weakened and nomads destroyed leadership. A few nobles moved the capital to Luoyang (the Eastern Zhou Dynasty [the weaker one]), but they had no power, and the states started warring against eachother.
Give a list of the Chinese Dynasties (and Wang Mang) in order. Tell their approximate dates of existence.
- Early Chinese Civilization: 2400 BCE
- Shang Dynasty: C. 1500-1000 BCE
- Zhou Dynasty: C. 1000- 250 BCE: 771 BCE Stuff started going bad until 221 (start of Qin)
- Qin Dynasty: C. 220 - 200 BCE
- Former Han Dynasty: C. 202 BCE- 9 AD
- Wang Mang comes along: 9-23 AD
- Later Han Dynasty: 23- 220 AD
When was the Eastern Zhou Dynasty formed? When did the Qin Dynasty begin?
When the Eastern Zhou Dynasty was formed, where was the capital moved from and where was it moved to?
Moved from Angyang to Luoyang
Who was the original empire of the Han Dynasty? How did he become this?
Liu Bang was one of Xiang Yu's generals. He turned against Yu in a civil war at the fall of the Qin Dynasty and became ruler.
What type of government did Liu Bang form? Why was this appealing to the people of the Han Dynasty?
- Centralized Government
- He was not as strict as Shi Huangdi; people liked that.
Who was Empress Lu? What was her significance?
She was Liu Bang's wife who remained in power after Bang died by appointing infant sons as emperors and ruling in their places.
What significance did Liu Bang's great grandson Wudi play in the development of China?
He was a martial emperor who used war to expand China to the North by defeating the Xiongnu and colonizing Manchuria and Korea.
Briefly describe the social hierarchy of the Han Dynasty.
- King/ Governor
- State Officials/Nobles/Scholars
- Farmers and Merchants
What technology did the Han Dynasty utilize and invent?
- Paper was invented (it helped spread educational and governmental records)
- The horse collar harness allowed them to carry heavier loads on a horse
- 2 Blade plow
- Iron TOols
- Watermills to grind grain
What was the most important occupation in the Han Dynasty?
Why did the Han Dynasty fall?
As land was divided up between the offspring of poor people, farmers were forced to take out loans to buy more land to create sizable farms. The interest rates were huge, and the poor could not pay them back. As the gap between the rich and poor grew, so did tensions between the poor and the government.
How did Wang Mang take over the Han Dynasty? How did his reign end?
Chaos was created as many people plotted to overthrow the government, and Wang Mang exploited this and overthrew the emperor. In trying to fix the spatial inequality, Mang messed up the economy, and Han was...ASSASSINATED. How do you hire an assassin?
What was the message of the Sparrow and Phoenix story?
Treat others as you'd like to be treated. This is specifically true when applied to the rich government officials and the poor peasants.
When the prosperity of the Later Han Dynasty ended, into how many parts was the empire split?
From what part of China did Shi Huangdi come? How did this influence his beliefs?
He came from western China which gave him the idea to use an army with a cavalry, and it taught him of the order that China enjoyed before the capital was moved.
How did the Qin Dynasty feel about the individual and family?
Legalists did not believe that these two things mattered. Only the emperor and his rule mattered.
During what years did the Han Dynasty take place?
202 BCE- 220AD
On what roads/routes did the Han Dynasty trade.
- Silk road/sea route
- They were expansionist