1. Society
    an organized collection of individuals and institutions, bounded by space in a coherent territory, subject to the same political authority, and organized through a shared set of cultural expectations and values.
  2. Social Institution
    a formal organized system of roles, norms, and values that are the major foundations of social life (i.e. family, education)
  3. Social Structure
    a complex framework composed of both patterned social interactions and institutions that together organize social life and provide the context for individual action.
  4. Social Interaction
    the dynamic process by which two (dyad), three (triad) or more individuals relate to one another.
  5. Looking-Glass Self
    Cooley's term for the process of how identity is formed through social interaction. We imagine how we appear to others and thus develop our sense of self based on the others' reactions, imagined or otherwise
  6. Impression Management
    Goffman's term for our attempts to control how others perceive us by changing our behavior to correspond to an ideal of what they will find most appealing.
  7. Dramaturgy
    Goffman's conception of social life as being like a stage play wherein we all work hard to convincingly play ourselves as "characters," such as grand-child, buddy, student, employee, or other roles.
  8. Face Work
    in dramaturgical theory, the possible performance of ourselves, because when we make a mistake or do something wrong, we feel embarrassed, or "lose face."
  9. Ethnomethodology
    the study of the social knowledge, codes, and conventions that underlie everyday interactions and allow people to make sense of what others say and do
  10. Superordinate
    individual or group that possesses social power
  11. Subordinate
    individual or group that possesses little or comparatively less social power
  12. Role Performance
    the particular emphasis or interpretation each of us gives a social role
  13. Status
    one's socially defined position in a group; it is often characterized by certain expectations and rights
  14. Ascribed Status
    status that is assigned to a person and over which he or she has no control
  15. Achieved Status
    status or social position based on one's accomplishments or activities
  16. Master Status
    an ascribed or achieved status presumed so important that it overshadows all of the others, dominating our lives and controlling our position in society.
  17. Role
    behavior expected of people who have a particular status
  18. Role Strain
    the experience of difficulty in performing a role
  19. Role Conflict
    what happens when we try to play different reles with extremely different or contradictory rules at the same time
  20. Role Exit
    the process we go through to adjust when leaving a role that is central to our identity
  21. Group
    collection of individuals who are aware that they share something in common and who interact with one another on the basis of their interrelated roles and statuses
  22. Dyad
    a group of two people, the smallest configuration defined by sociologists as a group
  23. Crowd
    an aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as essentially independent
  24. Group Cohesion
    the degree to which individual members of a group identify with each other and with the group as a whole
  25. Primary Group
    one such as friends and family, which comes together for expressive reasons, providing emotional support, love, companionship, and security
  26. Secondary Group
    co-workers, club members, or another group that comes together for instrumental reasons, such as wanting to work together to meet common goals. These groups make less of an emotional claim on one's identity than do primary groups
  27. In-Group
    a group with which you identify and that you feel positively toward, producing a "we" feeling
  28. Out-Group
    one to which you do not belong and toward which you feel either neutral or hostile; the "they" who are perceived as different from and of lower stature than ourselves
  29. In-Group Heterogeneity
    the social tendency to be keenly aware of the subtle differences among the individual members of your group (while believeing that all members of out-groups are exactly the same)
  30. Out-Group homogeneity
    the social tendency to believe that all members of an out-group are exactly the same (while being keenly aware of the subtle differences among the individual members of one's own group)
  31. Reference Group
    a group toward which one is so strongly committed, or one that commands so much prestige, that we orient our actions around what we perceive that group's perceptions would be
  32. Leader
    all groups have them, people in charge, whether they were elected, appointed, or just informally took control
  33. Hardcore Members
    the small number of group members, the "inner circle," who wield a great deal of power to make policy decisions
  34. Groupthink
    Irving Janis's term for social process in which members of a group attempt to conform their opinions to what they believe to be the consensus of the group, even if, as individuals, they may consider that opinion wrong or unwise
  35. Stereotype
    generalization about a group that is oversimplified, selective, exaggerated and usually pejorative, which fails to acknowledge the individual differences in a group
  36. Network
    often conceived as a web of social relationships, a type of group that is both looser and denser than a formal group but connects people to each other, and , through those connections, with other people
  37. Organization
    a formal group of ppl with one or more shared goals
  38. Normative Organization
    voluntary organization wherein members serve because they believe in the goals of the organization
  39. Coercive Organization
    one in which membership is not voluntary, with elaborate formal rules and sanctions
  40. Total Institution
    an institution that completely circumscribes your everyday life, cutting you off from life before you entered and seeking to regulate every part of your behavior
  41. Utilitarian Organization
    organization, like the college we attend or the company we work for, whose members belong for a specific, instrumental purpose or tangible material reward
  42. Bureaucracy
    originally derived from the French word bureau, or office, a formal organization characterized by a division of labor, a hierarchy of authority, formal rules governing behavior, a logic of rationality, and an impersonality of criteria
  43. Bureaucratic Personality
    Robert Merton's term to describe those ppl who become more committed to following the correct procedures than they are to getting the job done
  44. Quantitative Methods
    numerical means to drawing sociological conclusions using powerful statistical tools to help understand patterns in which the behaviors, attitudes, or traits under study can be translated into numerical values
  45. Qualitative Methods
    inductive and inferential means to drawing sociological understanding, usually about less tangible aspects of social life, such as the actual felt experience of social interaction
  46. Experiment
    a testing process that is performed under controlled conditions to examine the validity of a hypothesis
  47. Participant Observation
    sociological research method in which one observes ppl in their natural habitat
  48. Survey
    research method in which one asks a sample of ppl closed-ended questions and tabulates the results
  49. Socialization
    the process by which we become aware of ourselves as part of a group, learn to communicate with others, and learn how to behave as expected
  50. Generalized Other
    the organized rules, judgments, and attitudes of an entire group. If you try to imagine what is expected of you, you are taking on the perspective of this
  51. id
    Sigmund Freud's label for that part of the human perosnality that is pure impulse, without worrying about social rules, consequences, morality, or other ppl's reactions
  52. Superego
    Freud's term for the internalized norms, values, and "rules" of our social group that are learned from family, friends, and social institutions
  53. Ego
    Freud's term for the balancing force between the id and the superego; it channels impulses into socially acceptable forms
  54. Anticipatory Socialization
    the process of learning and adopting the beliefs, values, and behaviors of groups that one anticipates joining in the future
  55. Resocialization
    learning a new set of beliefs, behaviors, and values that depart from those held in the past
  56. Agents of Socialization
    the ppl, groups, or institutions that teach ppl how to be functioning members of their society
  57. Primary Socialization
    a culture's most basic values, which are passed on to children beginning in earliest infancy
  58. Secondary Socialization
    occurring throughout the life span, it is the adjustments we make to adapt to new situations
  59. Peer Group
    our group of friends and wider group of acqaintances who have an enormous socializing influence, especially during middle and late childhood
  60. Gender Socialization
    process by which males and females are taught the appropriate behaviors, attitudes, and traits for their biological sex. It begins at birth and continues throughout their lives
  61. Deviance
    breaking or refusing to follow a social rule. The rule can be societywide or specific to a particular group or situation
  62. Folkway
    one of the relatively weak and informal norms that are the result of patterns of action. Many of the behaviors we call "manners" are folkways
  63. Mores
    these are informally enforced norms based on strong moral values, which are viewed as essential to the proper functioning of a group
  64. Taboo
    the strongest form of norms, a taboo is a prohibition viewed as essential to the well-being of humanity
  65. Stigma
    an attribute that changes you "from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one," as sociologist Erving Goffman defined it. A stigma discredits a person's claim to be normal
  66. Subculture
    group within a society that creates its own norms and values distinct from the mainstream and usually its own separate social institutions as well
  67. Anomie
    a term developed by Emile Durkheim to describe a state of disorientation and confusion that results from too little social regulation, in which institutional constraints fail to provide a coherent foundation for action
  68. Differential Association
    Edwin H. Sutherland's theory suggesting that deviance occurs when an individual receives more prestige and less punishment by violating norms than by following them
  69. Control Theory
    Travis Hirschi's theory that ppl perform a cost-benifit analysis about becoming deviant, determining how much punishment is worth the degree of satisfaction of prestige the deviance will confer
  70. Social Control Theory
    as Walter Reckless theorized, ppl don't commit crimes even if they could probably get away w/ them due to social controls. there are outer controls- family, friends, teachers, social institutions, and authority figures (like the police) -who influence (cajole, threated, browbeat) us into obeying social rules; and inner controls- internalized socialization, consciousness, religious principles, ideas of right and wrong, and one's self-conception as a "good person."
  71. Labeling Theory
    Howard Becker's term stresses the relativity of deviance, naming the mechanism by which the same act is considered deviant in some groups but not in others. Labels are used to categorize and contain ppl
  72. Primary Deviance
    any minor, usually unnoticed, act of deviance committed irregularly that does not have an impact on one's self-identity or on how one is labeled by others
  73. Secondary Deviance
    the moment when someone acquires a deviant identity, occurring when he or she repeatedly breaks a norm and ppl start making a big deal of it, so the rule breaking can no longer be attributed to a momentary lapse in judgment or justifiable under the circumstances but is an indication of a permanent personality trait
  74. Tertiary Deviance
    occurs when members of a group formerly labeled deviant attempt to redefine their acts, attributes, or identities as normal- even virtuous
  75. Crime
    a deviant act that lawmakers consider bad enough to warrant formal laws and sanctions
  76. strain theory
    Robert K. merton's concept that excessive deviance is a by-product of inequality w/in societies that promote certain norms and versions of social reality yet provide unequal means of meeting or attaining them. Individuals respond to this either by conforming or by changing the goals or means of obtaining goals accepted by society
  77. Broken Windows Theory
    Philip Zimbardo's propositions that minor acts of deviance can spiral into severe crime and social decay. Atmosphere and context are keys to whether deviance occurs or spirals
  78. Opportunity Theory
    Cloward and Ohlin's theory of crime, which holds that those who have many opportunities- and good ones at that- will be more likely to commit crimes than those w/ few good opportunities
  79. Violent Crime
    a crime of violence or one in which violence is a defining feature. According to the FBI, violent crime consists of four offenses: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault
  80. Property Crime
    a crime committed involving property, such as burglary, car theft, or arson, where there is no force or threat of force against a person
  81. White-Collar Crime
    Edward Sutherland's term for the illegal actions of a corporation or ppl acting on its behalf, by using the authority of their position to commit crime
  82. Consumer Crime
    crime in which the perpetrator uses a fake or stolen credit card to buy things for him- or herself or for resale. Such purchases cost both retailers and, increasingly, "e-tailers" over $1 billion/ yr., or nearly 5 cents for every dollar spent online
  83. Occupational Crime
    the use of one's professional position to illegally secure something of value for oneself or for the corporation
  84. Organizational Crime
    illegal actions committed in accordance w/ the operative goals of an organization, such as antitrust violations, false advertising, or price fixing
  85. Cybercrime
    the growing array of crimes committed via the Internet and World Wide Web, such as Internet fraud and identiey theft
  86. Hate Crime
    a criminal act committed by an offender motivated by bias against race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or disability status
Card Set
Exam 2