Infection Prevention and Control

  1. Infection
    invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms resulting in disease
  2. Colonization
    If a microorganism is present or invades a host, grows and/or multiplies but does not cause infection
  3. Infectious diseases like ________ and ________ do not pose a risk for transmission.
    viral meningitis and pneumonia
  4. Communicable Disease
    • If an infectious disease can be transmitted from one person to another
    • Chicken Pox
    • MRSA
    • Tb
    • STI
  5. The presence of a pathogen does not mean that an infection will occur. Infection occurs in a cycle that depends on the presence of all of the following elements:
    • An infectious agent or pathogen
    • •A reservoir or source for pathogen growth
    • •A portal of exit from the reservoir
    • •A mode of transmission
    • •A portal of entry to a host
    • •A susceptible host
  6. Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, and fungi are
    Microorganisms or Causative Agents
  7. Resident Flora
    (normal flora) are permanent residents of the skin, where they survive and multiply without causing illness.
  8. Transient Flora
    Transient microorganisms attach to the skin when a person has contact with another person or object during normal activities.
  9. Virulence
    Ability of microorganism to survive in and outside of host
  10. List some Portals of exits:
    • Skin and Mucous Membranes- break in skin
    • Respiratory Tract-sneeze or cough
    • Urinary Tract - urine
    • Gastrointestinal tract- kissing, bowel elimination
    • Reproductive tract- sex
    • blood
  11. Physical contact between the source and the susceptible host is known as:
    • Direct transmission
    • -touching patients feces and then eating. (ew)
    • -Hep A
  12. Personal contact of susceptible host with contaminated inanimate object is what kind of transmission?
    • Indirect
    • -needles, sharp objects, dressings
    • -Hep B, Hep C, HIV
  13. Large particles that travel up to 3 feet and come in contact with susceptible host is known as what kind of transmission?
    • Droplet
    • -coughing, sneezing
    • -influenza, rubella, and bacterial meningitis
  14. Droplet nuclei, or residue, or evaporated droplets suspended in air or carried on dust particles is known as what kind of transmission?
    • -airborne
    • -coughing sneezing
    • -Tb, Chicken Pox, measles
  15. Vehicles, in relation to transmission, is:
    • Contaminated items
    • Water
    • Drugs
    • Solutions
    • Blood
    • Food (improperly handled)
  16. Vector, in relation to transmission, is:
    • External mechanical transfer (flies)
    • Internal transmission (parisite)
    • lice, flea, tick, mosquito
  17. When an infection is localized....
    ie a wound infections) the patient experiences localized symptoms, like pain or redness to the wound area
  18. When an infection is systemic....
    An infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ or part is systemic and can become fatal if undetected and untreated.
  19. List the stages of infection in order
    • Incubation
    • Prodomal
    • Illness
    • Convalescence
  20. Incubation Stage
    • Interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms
    • (e.g., chickenpox, 10 to 21 days post exposure; common cold, 1 to 2 days; influenza, 1 to 5 days; mumps, 12 to 26 days).
  21. Prodromal Stage
    • Interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (malaise, low-grade fever, fatigue) to more specific symptoms.
    • During this time, microorganisms grow and multiply, and client may be capable of spreading disease to others.
    • For example, herpes simplex begins with itching and tingling at the site before the lesion appears.
  22. Illness Stage
    • Interval when client manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection.
    • For example, strep throat is manifested by sore throat, pain, and swelling; mumps is manifested by high fever, parotid and salivary gland swelling.
  23. Convalescence stage
    • Interval when client manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection.
    • For example, strep throat is manifested by sore throat, pain, and swelling; mumps is manifested by high fever, parotid and salivary gland swelling.
  24. Pathogenicity
    the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease
  25. What are some of the body's defenses against disease?
    • Normal Body Flora
    • Intact Skin
    • Linings of nasal passage ways
    • Inflammatory Response
  26. Inflammation
    A protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products, and nutrients to an area of injury. The process neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or dead (necrotic) tissues and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues.
  27. The inflammatory response consists of 3 events:
    • 1. vascular and cellular responses: rapid vasodilatation occurs, which allows more blood near the location of the injury
    • 2. inflammatory exudate: Accumulation of fluid and dead tissue cells and WBCs forms an exudate at the site of inflammation. Exudate may be serous (clear, like plasma), sanguineous (containing red blood cells), or purulent (containing WBCs and bacteria).
    • 3. tissue repair:Damaged cells are eventually replaced with healthy new cells.
  28. Iatrogenic Infection
    • A type of HAI (Health-care Acquired Infection) from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure.
    • For example, following a gastrointestinal endoscopy the client developed a P. aeruginosa infection.
  29. Exogenous Infection
    A post-operative infection
  30. Endogenous Infection
    can occur when part of the client's flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results. For example, a client is placed on several antibiotics in the hospital setting and develops C. difficile infection as a result.
  31. What are some factors affecting susceptibility to infection?
    • Age
    • Heredity
    • Cultural Practices
    • Nutritional Status
    • Stress
    • Rest and Exercise
    • Inadequate defenses
    • Personal Habits
    • Environmental Factors
    • Immunization/disease history
    • Medical Therapies
  32. What are some lab tests to screen for infection
    • WBC count
    • Urinalysis
    • Iron level
    • Blood Cultures
    • Wound, Sputum, and throat cultures
    • Sedimentation Rate
    • Differential Count (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils)
  33. What are some ways to promote health in the hospital?
    • Nutrition
    • Hygiene
    • Immunizations
    • Adequate Rest and Exercise
  34. What are some things to consider when using an aseptic technique
    • Hand washing
    • Soap or alcohol based scrub?
    • Cleaning, disinfecting, sterilizing
  35. Medical Asepsis
    • or clean technique, includes procedures used to reduce the number of organisms present and prevent the transfer of organisms.
    • Hand hygiene, using clean gloves to prevent the transfer of organisms from one client to another or to prevent direct contact with client blood or body fluids, and cleaning the environment routinely are examples of medical asepsis
  36. What are some standard precautions?
    • hand washing, wearing gloves, mask, eye protection and gown.
    • These precautions apply to blood , secretions, excretions, non-intact skin and mucous membrane to prevent nosocomial infections.
  37. Disinfection
    describes a process that eliminates many or all microorganisms, with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects
  38. Sterilization
    is the complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms, including spores.
  39. Airborne Precautions
    Private room, negative-pressure airflow of at least 6-12 air exchanges per hour via HEPA filtration; mask or respiratory protection device(N95 Respirator)
  40. Droplet precautions
    • Private room or cohort clients; refer to the facility policy for cohorting clients
    • Mask or respirator is required; refer to facility policy
  41. Contact Precautions
    Private room or cohort clients; refer to the facility policy for cohorting clients; gloves, gowns>
  42. Protective Precautions
    Private room, positive-pressure room with 12 or more air exchanges per hour, HEPA filtration for incoming air, respirator mask, gloves, and gowns
  43. Surgical Aesepsis
    • sterile technique prevents contamination of an open wound, serves to isolate the operative area from the unsterile environment, and maintains a sterile field for surgery.
    • Surgical asepsis includes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area.
    • In surgical asepsis an area or object is considered contaminated if touched by any object that is not sterile.
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Infection Prevention and Control