1. mandatory ethics
    things you must do, act in compliance with minimum standards
  2. aspirational ethics
    highest standards of thinking and conduct. (e.g., pro bono services)
  3. 6 moral principles in ethics:
    • 1. Autonomy: the promotion of self-determination, or the freedom of clients to choose their own direction. (e.g., Clients right to withdraw from services)
    • 2. Nonmaleficence: avoiding doing harm, including refraining from actions that risk hurting clients. (e.g., dual and multiple relationships)
    • 3.Beneficence: Promoting good for others.
    • 4. Justice: To be fair by giving equally to others; providing equal treatment for all.
    • 5. Fidelity: To make and keep promises
    • 6. Veracity; Truthfulness; represent yourself to the public in a truthful manner. (e.g., not practicing beyond your competence)
  4. What are the steps in making ethical decisions?
    • 1.Identify the problem/dilemna
    • 2. Identify potential issues involved
    • 3. Review relevant ethics involved
    • 4. Know the applicable laws and regulations
    • 5. Obtain consultation
    • 6. Consider possible and probable courses of action
    • 7. Evaluate the consequences of various decisions
    • 8. Decide the best course of action.
  5. Tranference
    The process whereby clients project onto their therapists past feelings or attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives; the "unreal" relationship in therapy.
  6. countertransference
    Projections by therapists that distort the way they perceive and react to a client.
  7. experiential learning
    counselors seeking therapy themselves
  8. What are the biggest sources of stress for counselors?
    • 1. suicidal statements
    • 2. severely depressed clients
    • 3. lack of motivation by clients
    • 4. clients premature termination
    • 5. aggression and hostility by clients
  9. informed consent
    the right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it
  10. informed consent document
    used to define boundaries and clarify the nature of the therapeutic relationship
  11. Legal aspects of informed consent
    • Capacity: client hasthe ability to make rational decisions
    • Comprehension of information: therapists must give clients information in a clear way and check to see that they understand it.
    • Voluntariness: the person giving consent is acting freely in the decision-making process and is legally and psychologically able (competent) to give consent.
  12. Tarasoff Case
    • Duty to warn of harm to self or others
    • Duty to protect
    • Client informs therapist that he is going to harm his girlfriend
    • Therapist calls the campus police and sent a formal letter
    • Client kills his girlfriend
    • family sues b/c therapist didn't do enough to make sure clients girlfriend was safe
  13. Bradley Case
    • duty not to negligently release dangerous client
    • client is in an inpatient unit
    • threatened earlier to kill his wife and her lover
    • was given an unrestricted pass to visit his children living with his life
    • kills his wife and her lover
  14. _____ is concerned with perspectives of right and proper conduct and involves an evaluation of actions on the basis of some broader cultural context or religous standard.
  15. Robert runs into the office, unprepared and frustrated because he is late for his weekly appointment with his first client of the day. He is consistently late for his appointments and his behavior is:
  16. James and Mary were going to counseling for marital problems and the counselor decided to meet each partner in an individual session before meeting them as a couple. James confided that he was HIV-positive and was not goint to tell his spouse because she would know that he had been unfaithful. The counselor decided to break confidentiality after attempts to encourage James to inform his wife of his condition. The counselor's action:
    may be considered unethical, yet the practitioner could be in violation of a legal standard.
  17. Elizabeth is a beginning practitioner and is counseling in a manner where she merely acts in compliance with the law and follows minimal ethical standards. She is at the first level of ethical functioning whic is:
    mandatory ethics
  18. The virtuous professional:
    possesses vision and discernment, which involves sensitivity, judgement, and understanding and leads to decisive ethical actions
  19. Which of the following models of ethical decision making focuses primarily on teh social aspects of decision making and redefines teh process as being interactive rather than intrapsychic?
    social constructionist model
  20. ____ is the process whereby clients place past feelings or attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives onto theri therapist.
  21. In regards to values in the counseling process, teh authors contend that:
    it is incumbent that counselors clarify their values and the ways in which they enter the therapeutic process.
  22. ____ refers to a personal inclination or desire for a relationship with the transcendent or God.
  23. Ruth is counseling with a woman who describes an extrememly unhappy marriage. Ruth suggests that she consider leaving her husband. The client has a deep spiritual conviction that marriage is for life and is not willing to consider divorce as an option. Ruth attempts to change her client's viewpoint as being unhealthy. In this case, Ruth is:
    imposing her values on the client instead of exploring the client's reasons for staying in the marriage.
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