- were mountain passes in the mountain valleys that was an frontier that
- separated Byzantines.
dar al-Islam/dar al-harb
- the world was divided into 2 realms by the Shari'a, dar al-Islam and dar
- al-harb. Dar al-Islam was the house of Islam where muslims could
- practice their religion freely. Dar al-Harb was the house of war
- which was the non-muslim world where they were not protected by the
- muslim law.
- is the idea of an greater jihad. More of an struggle against one's soul
- and if the struggle is overcome there shall be an reward.
- is the idea of an lesser jihad. The external struggle against the
- non-believers/ non-muslims.
- was an emperior of the Byzantine empire (963-969). Motivated marches to
- the lslamic lands.
- the Shiites concept of the imam is that the imam who came before can
- designates who comes next; successor.
- is Arabic meaning “to be in front of”, is someone who stands in
- front of an congregation and leads them in prayer. Shi'ites view him
- as their legitimate leader, while the sunni's just denotes him as the
- prayer leader.
- succeeded his father Muhammad al-Baqir as leader of the Husayni branch in 737.
- Became an major figure in the development of the discipline of
- Islamic law. Was well know for and received a lot of respect for his
- wisdom, scholarship and genorsity. Exibited the first signs of
- Shiites doctrine of an Iman.
- is the concept of knowledge, 'ilm, that has exoteric meaning. Consists
- of the outer knowledge of Islam and law, Shar'ia.
- is the concept of knowledge, 'ilm, that has an esoteric meaning.
- Consists of inner knowledge that only the imam possesses.
- is an narrative of the sayings and deeds that were taking from the
- Prophet Muhammad that becomes guidance to the islamic community on
- the apprioprate behavior.
in islamic jurisprudience, indicates personal opinion in adapting law, shar'ia
- in islamic jurisprudience, an analogy; where the hadith and the qu'ran
- are compared and contrasted with one another.
- an chain of informants conveying an account. Like that such as the
- accounts of the Prophet in the hadith.
- it refers to an market located in an Arab or Muslim city. Held on the
- out skirts of the city on caravan stops.
a roadside inn or waystation, within a city. Caravan sell wholesell goods to merchants.
- is the palace of the governor that is located next to the mosque. This
- is where the governor and the tax office of diwan resides
a caliph who commissioned a map of the world.
An arab geographer who thought that direct observation is the bestway to observe islamic lands. He took journery around islamiccountries to observse and documents his oberservations.
it is an water lifting device that retrives water from an moving watersource. This is done by an big wheel that is placed in the movingwater source and it turns by the movement of the water.
is an method that was used to retrive water from an underground source.This is done by building tunnels that taps into the underground watersource and that operates on a water table and gravity.
are records, documents, and sources that was found in a synagog in aJewish community. It describes business transactions that took placebetween businesses .
manages and registers the waterightsfor each village. Measures who gets which water source and how muchof it they get.